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CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied— Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States—General occupation of males at the present time, in the households studied-General occupation of women at the present time, in the households studied-Weekly earnings Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income--Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income.—[Text Tables 15 to 37 and General Tables 6 to 18).

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSE

HOLDS STUDIED.

Before entering upon a discussion of the economic status of the iron-ore mine workers in this country the general industrial condition and principal occupation while abroad of foreign-born employees and members of their households are set forth. The first table submitted in this connection shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

Table 15.Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born

males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows that only 3 per cent of the foreign-born males for whom information was obtained were without occupation prior to coming to the United States, while 39.8 per cent worked for wages, 39 per cent without wages, and 18.2 per cent for profit. No Croatians, South Italians, or Slovenians, and only 7.1 per cent of the Finns and 9.8 per cent of the Swedes, among those for whom information was secured, were without occupation abroad. Among these same races working for wages the proportion of South Italians is slightly in excess of that of the Swedes, largely in excess of that of the Finns or Croatians, and very largely in excess of that of the Slovenians—the last named reporting only 10.3 per cent. Considering these same races, the representatives of which work without wages, it will be noted that the condition of the South Italians and Slovenians is just the reverse of that shown by those working for wages. In other words, the Slovenians, with 72.4 per cent working without wages, show the largest proportion, while the South Italians, with only 10 per cent, show the smallest proportion. Both the Croatians and Finns show a proportion working without wages as indicated above, while the Swedes show a proportion below that shown in the total for all foreign-born males. . Among those of these same races who worked for profit before coming to the United States both the South Italians and Croatians show a proportion in excess of that shown for all males, while the reverse is true of the Slovenians, Finns, and Swedes-the Slovenians and Finns each showing a proportion slightly below, while the Swedes show a proportion much below that shown in the total for all males.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at the time of coming to this country:

Table 16.-Occupation before coming to the United States, of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of the 236 foreign-born males in this industry for whom information was obtained only 3 per cent were without occupation before coming to the United States, 39.8 per cent worked for wages, 39 per cent without wages, and 18.2 per cent for profit

. The proportion employed as farm laborers for wages is larger than the proportion employed in any other wage-earning occupation. The proportion employed in iron-ore mining constitutes the next largest percentage in this group. Of those who worked without

wages abroad none were employed in an occupation other than as farm laborers, while of those working for profit none were employed other than as farmers.

A comparison of those working for wages, and who were employed as farm laborers, shows that a slightly larger proportion of Swedes than of Croatians or South Italians, and a much larger proportion of Swedes than Finns or Slovenians were so employed. None of the Slovenians, and only a small proportion of Croatians, Finns, and Swedes, as compared with 20 per cent of the South Italians, were employed as general laborers. The representatives of only 2 races, the Swedes and South Italians, with 22 per cent of the former and 20 per cent of the latter, had obtained prior to coming to the United States any experience in the industry in which they are now employed. As regards those in hand trades, the Swedes, with 9.8 per cent, show the largest proportion, while the Slovenians, with 3.4. per cent, show the smallest proportion. None of the South Italians,. and less than 5 per cent of either the Swedes, Slovenians, or Croatians, as compared with 16.7 per cent of the Finns, were employed for wages abroad in occupations other than specified'in the preceding table.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of arrival in this country. Table 17.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by. race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Information was obtained for 199 foreign-born females in households connected with this industry. Of this number, 47.2 per cent were without occupation prior to coming to the United States, 31.7 per cent worked for wages, 20.6 per cent without wages, and 0.5 per cent for profit. With the exception of the Croatians, the largest proportion of females of each race was without occupation abroad-the Finns, with 72.5 per cent, reporting a slightly larger proportion than the Slovenians and a considerably larger proportion than the Swedes, while the proportion of Croatian females without occupation abroad was only 12.2 per cent. Of those working both for wages and without wages abroad, the Croatians show the largest proportions, or 40.8 and 46.9 per cent, respectively. On the other

hand, the smallest proportion, or 7.4 per cent, working for wages is shown by the Slovenians, while of those working without wages the smallest proportion, or 3.2 per cent, is shown by the Swedes. Of those working for profit before coming to the United States, it will be noted that the Swedes alone show a small proportion.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females, in the households studied, who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming to this country: Table 18.—Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who

were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the 199 foreign-born females for whom information obtained, 47.2 per cent were without occupation abroad, 31.7 per cent worked for wages, 20.6 per cent without wages, and 0.5 per cent for profit. Of the total number, 25.6 per cent were in domestic service, 3.5 per cent were employed as farm laborers for wages, 1.5 per cent in wage-earning occupations other than specified, and 1 per cent in sewing, embroidering, etc., for wages. Of those working without wages, the entire number was employed as farm laborers, while of those working for profit none was employed other than as farmers.

None of the Croatians or Finns, and only a small proportion of the Swedes and Slovenians, were employed as farm laborers before coming to the United States. Of those employed in domestic service, on the other hand, the Croatians, with 38.8 per cent, show a slightly larger proportion than do the Swedes and a much larger proportion than do the Finns—the last-named reporting only 17.5 per cent. None of the Slovenians or Swedes, and only 2 per cent of the Croatians

2 and 2.5 per cent of the Finns, were employed in sewing, embroidering, etc. Of those who worked without wages abroad, the Croatians, 46.9 per cent of whom were employed as farm laborers, show a much larger proportion than the Slovenians, while the proportions of Finns and Swedes so employed are extremely low. Of those working for profit, the Swedes alone show a very small proportion employed as farmers.

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