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Table 12.Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by locality and by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made

for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting in each of two or more localities. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

IN UNITED STATES UNDER 5 YEARS.

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Of the foreign-born Croatians, North Italians, South Italians, Poles, and Slovenians, Michigan shows larger proportions who have been in the United States less than five years than does Minnesota, the latter State reporting larger proportions of recent immigrants among the English, Finns, and Slovaks.

Of the foreign-born Croatians, English, Finns, and Slovenians, Minnesota shows larger proportions than does Michigan of employees who have been in this country less than ten and less than twenty years, respectively, while of the South Italians, Poles, and Slovaks larger per cents reporting such residence are shown by Michigan.

În Alabama, only the South Italians report in sufficient numbers for the computation of percentages. Of this race, 99.2 per cent, practically all, have been in the United States less than twenty years, 93.8 per cent have been here less than ten years, and 62.5 per cent less than five years.

The table shows that 90.8 per cent of all the foreign-born employees have been in the United States less than twenty years. As a matter of fact each race reporting but the English exceeds this proportion by at least 4 per cent, the relatively low per cent for the English (56.1) reducing the figure for the aggregate. The same thing occurs in the other sections of the table, though the Finns and Slovaks are below the average in the tabulation regarding a residence of less than five years, and the fins only slightly exceed the total in that concerning the ten-year period.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial composition of the operating force of the industry at the present time may be seen from the table next presented and accompanying chart, which shows the race of the employees for whom information was secured and which is believed to be representative of the distribution of the races in the mines.

TABLE 13.- Male employees of each race for whom information was secured.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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357 3,926 4,355

4.3 47.4 52.6

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

48296° -VOL 16-11-15

Number of employees of each general nativity for whom detailed information was secured.

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Of the male employees for whom information was secured, 52.6 per cent are foreign-born, 29.6 per cent are native-born of native father negro, 13.5 per cent are native-born of native father white, and only 4.3 per cent are native-born of foreign father. Among the nativeborn of foreign father, sons of fathers born in England, Sweden, Canada, and Ireland have the largest representation. The principal foreign races in the industry are the Finns, North Italians, Poles, Slovenians, and Croatians, in the order named. The South Italians, English, Swedes, and Slovaks are also present in considerable numbers.

The following table shows, by locality, the race of male employees for whom information was secured:

Table 14.-Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per

cent distribution.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

Per cent distribution in each specified locality.

General nativity and race.

Alabama. Michigan. Minnesota.

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Native-born of native father:
White..

27.3 Negro..

67.1
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of
father:

Austria-Hungary
Canada.

0
Denmark.
England

0 Finland.

0 France.

0 Germany

0 Ireland

0 Italy..

0 Netherlands. Norway.

.0 Russia.

0 Scotland.

0 Sweden. Switzerland.

0 Foreign-born, by race: Bohemians and Moravians.

.0 Bulgarian..

(a) Canadian, French..

0 Canadian, Other.

(a)
Croatian.
Danish.

01
Dutch
English.
Finnish
Flemish.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Irish.
Italian, North.
Italian, South.

3.5
Italian (not specified).
Lithuanian.

.0 Macedonian,

.0
Magyar.
Mexican.
Montenegrin.
Norwegian.
Polish.
Roumanian

(a)
Russian.
Ruthenian.
Scotch.

0 Servian.

0 Slovak.

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

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.4 5.4

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4.7 22.9

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TABLE 14.-Race of male employees for whom information was secured, by locality; per

cent distribution-Continued.

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As regards the totals of the foregoing table, the racial classification of the employees in Michigan and in Minnesota is practically the same, the foreign-born constituting 89.1 per cent and 90.6 per cent, respectively, the native-born of foreign father 8.8 per cent and 5.9 per cent, and the total native-born 10.9 per cent and 9.4 per cent. There are no negroes reported in Minnesota, and only 0.1 per cent of this race in Michigan. Conditions in Alabama, however, are very different, 67.1 per cent of the operating force being native-born negro, 27.3 per cent native-born white, and only 5.6 per cent foreign-born. None of the employees in this locality are second-generation immigrants.

A comparison of the various foreign races shows the greatest differences among the localities to be in the proportions of Croatians, North Italians, Poles, and Slovenians employed.

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