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Of the total number of employees in the iron-ore mining industry for whom information was secured, 52.6 per cent are foreign-born, 47.4 per cent are native-born, and 4.3 per cent are native-born of foreign father. The foreign-born represent a larger proportion of the total number of persons in Minnesota than in either of the other localities. There are no employees native-born of foreign father in Alabama. In each of the other localities the native-born of foreign father represent less than 10 percent of the total number of employees in the locality. In Alabama 67.1 per cent of the total number of employees are negroes, native-born of native father, while 27.3 per cent are whites, native-born of native father. In each of the other localities the proportion of persons who are native-born of native father is very small. The North and South Italian are the only foreign-born races that represent more than 1 per cent of the total number of persons in Alabama. In Michigan 18.7 per cent of the total number of employees for whom information was secured are North Italians, while 22.9 per cent are Finnish. In Minnesota 23.7 per cent of the total number of employees for whom information was secured are foreign-born Finnish and only 3.5 per cent are native-born of native father, whites. Slightly more than 10 per cent are Croatians, while 17.4 per cent are Slovenian. The English, North and South Italians, Montenegrins, Poles, and Slovaks are also represented in large numbers in Minnesota.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time{Text Tables 9 to 14 and General Tables 4 and 5).

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The character of recent and past immigration to the iron-ore mines may be seen from the series of tables next presented, which exhibit the period of residence in this country of employees of foreign birth. The period of residence in the United States and length of employment in the iron-ore mines are not necessarily identical, but they approximate each other. The table first presented and accompanying chart show, by race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 9.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States under 1 year, 1

year, 2 years, etc., by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is,

made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race.

[This chart shows only races with 100 or more reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

CROATIAN
ENGLISH
FINNISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
ITALIAN, SOUTH
POLISH
SLOVAK
SLOVENIAN
SWEDISH
TOTAL

UNDER 5 YRS

= 5 TO 19 YR5.

Of the total number of foreign-born males employed in this industry, the largest proportion, or 24.1 per cent, have been in the United States from five to nine years. Those with a period of residence of two, three, and four years following in the order named, and less than 10 per cent having had a residence of each other specified number of years. Of the several races, each, except the French Canadians, English, Finns, Germans, Slovaks, and Swedes, shows over 50 per cent of their number to have been in the United States less than five years. The French Canadians, English, and Germans each show over 50 per cent of their number to have been in the United States fifteen years or over, while the Swedish is the only one of the remaining races showing as high as 50 per cent of their number to have been in the United States ten years or over.

The Montenegrins show their entire number as having had a period or residence of from one to ten years. Only 4.9 per cent of the Bulgarians have been in the United States as long as five years, all of these having had a period of residence of twenty years or over.

The following table is based upon the same data as the table immediately preceding, but groups together in the first classification all employees who had been in the United States under five years: Table 10.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The largest proportion, or 52.9 per cent, of the 4,319 foreign-born males employed in this industry have been in the United States under five years. The next largest proportion, or 24.1 per cent, have had a period of residence in the United States of from five to nine years, and less than 10 per cent have had a period of residence of from ten to fourteen years, fifteen to nineteen years, or twenty years or over.

Only 4.9 per cent of the Bulgarians have had a period of residence of more than five years, all of this number having been in the United States twenty years or over. The French Canadians with 72.1 per cent show a decidedly larger proportion than any other given race who have had a period of residence of twenty years or over, the English, German, and Swedish, with 43.9 per cent, 41.7 per cent, and 31.2 per cent, respectively, being the only other races showing as high as 10 per cent. The entire number of the Montenegrin have been in this country less than ten years. Each race, except the French Canadian, English, German, and Swedish, shows over 50 per cent of their number as having been in the United States less than ten years.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

Table 11.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of

years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of the total number of foreign-born persons, 35.4 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 67.2 per cent under ten years, and 84.9 per cent under twenty years. The most recent arrivals are the Croatians, 74 per cent of whom have been here less than five years. The English and Swedes, on the other hand, have been in this country the longest, slightly less than half having been here twenty years or over.

The table following shows, by locality and by race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years.

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