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CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time-[Text Tables 7 to 11 and General Tables 4 and 5].

· HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

No statistics which afford any insight into the racial movements to the several copper-mining districts or set forth the nativity or race of employees of the industry during past years are available. The racial movements to the copper mines of Tennessee have occurred within the past few years and have been the result of the efforts of the operators in that region to attract immigrant employees in order to meet the demand for labor growing out of the extension of mining operations and the inadequacy of the native labor supply. The history of immigration to the Michigan copper-mining range is set forth in detail in Part II of this report."

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The character of recent and past immigration to the copper mines may be readily seen from the series of tabulations which follows, showing the period of residence in the United States of foreign-born mine workers and members of their households. Length of residence in this country and period of employment are not necessarily identical but they closely approximate each other. The first table and chart submitted embrace the same data as the table following but present it in a more summary form. All the employees with a period of residence of less than five years appear in one group.

TABLE 7.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race. [This chart shows only races with 100 or more employees reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

Of the total number of foreign-born male employees, 45.3 per cent have been in the United States under five years and 20.8 per cent five to nine years. The proportion of foreign-born employees who have been in this country twenty years or over is greater than the proportion that has been here from ten to nineteen years. The most recent arrivals are the Lithuanians, 90 per cent of whom have been here less than five years. In addition, more than 50 per cent of the Croatians, North Italians, Magyars, and Slovenians have been here under five years. More than 70 per cent of the French Canadians, Germans, and Irish, and the greater part of the Canadians other than French and the Norwegians have been here twenty years or over.

The table below shows, by race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

TABLE 8.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 2 years, etc., by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 4,622 foreign-born male employees in the copper-mining industry the greater proportion have been in the United States less than ten years, while slightly less than 20 per cent have been in the United States twenty years or over. It is seen that a greater proportion have come in the last five years than any preceding period of the same length of time. With the exception of the English and Swedes the bulk of the older immigrant races reporting have been in the United States twenty years or over, while of the more recent races all except the Poles show less than 10 per cent who have been in the United States twenty years or over. With the exception of the English, but small proportions of the older races have come to the United States within the past five years, while with the more recent races the reverse is true.

The table next presented shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years.

TABLE 9.-Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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It appears from the above table that of the foreign-born persons for whom information was secured 18.2 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 43.9 per cent have been here under ten years, and 70.1 per cent have been here under 20 years. The proportion of persons who have been in this country under five years is largest for the Magyars, English, and North Italians, in the order mentioned, and the proportion of persons who have been here under ten years is largest for the Magyars, Slovenians, and Croatians, in the order mentioned. All of the Slovenians, over 95 per cent of the Croatians, Magyars, and Slovaks, and less than 3 per cent of the Germans and Irish have been in the United States under twenty years.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial composition of the operating forces of the industry is set forth in the table following, which shows the number and percentage of male employees of each race for whom information was secured in the Tennessee copper-mining district.

TABLE 10.-Male employees of each race for whom information was secured-Tennessee copper-mining district.

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Of the total number of male employees for whom information was secured, 90.6 per cent are native whites born of native father, 6.9 per cent are of foreign birth, 2.3 per cent are native-born of foreign father, and 0.2 per cent are native-born negroes of native father. Of the employees who are native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in England show 0.9 per cent, while no male employees whose fathers were born in other specified countries show over 0.3 per cent of the total number for whom information was secured. Of the employees of foreign birth, the Magyars show 2 per cent, and the Roumanians 1.4 per cent, while no employees who are of other specified races show over 0.8 per cent of the total number for whom information was secured.

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