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The "household " includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The household may consist of one or more families, with or without boarders or lodgers; or it may consist of a group of persons living together, no family included; or it may consist of various combinations of families, groups," and boarders or lodgers.

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The term "family," as used throughout these tables, refers in general to the immediate family composed of husband, wife, and children. Groups of persons among whom none of these relations exist are not considered families. Households in which complicated relationships exist have been resolved into the component immediate families. Remnants of families maintaining a home are considered families when either husband or wife is present.

The general tables show results of two practically independent studies, as follows:

STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.

All tables headed "Study of households" are based on information from the schedule which was filled out for certain selected households in each of the several communities. Names and addresses were secured of employees in a given industry who were heads of households, and for each such household a schedule was filled out by an agent of this Commission, who visited the apartment and secured detailed information, so far as possible, for every occupant, as well as data in regard to family and household organization and status at the time of the visit.

STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.

The general tables, headed "Study of employees," present data from the schedule relating only to the individual employee. This schedule was filled out by the employee himself or by someone detailed by the employer to the task, to whom the employee furnished data.

The general tables of this series, therefore, concern only the history and present status of the employee, while the other series, as has been stated, presents data not only for certain of the employees, but also for members of their households. All data included under the "Study of employees" are tabulated by sex and by general nativity and race of individual. For the native-born of foreign father the classification is by country of birth of father, and not by race of father.

DESCRIPTION OF TABLES.

Total number of households and persons studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 1. This table enumerates the households studied of each race, the aggregate of the members of the households of each race, and the persons, male and female, for whom detailed information was secured. All members of households appear in this table under the general nativity and race of head of household.

Number of persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual: Study of house

holds. Table 2.-This table is a second enumeration of the persons, male and female, who are included in the detailed study of members of households. In this enumeration each individual appears under his own general nativity and race.

Total number of male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 3, 51, and 64.—These tables enumerate the employees for whom data were secured for the "Study of employees. The enumeration is by general nativity and race of employee.

Number of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race: Study of employees. Tables 4, 52, and 65.-All foreign-born male employees who report the number of years since their first arrival in the United States are here classified as in the United States under one year, one year, two years, three years, four years, five to nine years, ten to fourteen years, fifteen to nineteen years, or twenty years or over.

Number of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by sex and race of individual: Study of households. Table 5.-This table, which is concerned with members of households, is similar to Table 4, relating to employees.

Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual: Study of households. Table 6.-Males who were 16 years of age or over at the time of their first arrival in the United States are here classified according to whether before coming to the United States they worked for profit, for wages, or without wages, and are further classified according to the kind of employment pursued. Payments in kind as well as in money are here considered wages. Persons who worked without wages were usually at work with fathers or other near relatives.

Occupation before coming to the females who were 16 years of age or of individual: Study of households. to Table 6, relating to males.

United States of foreign-born over at time of coming, by race Table 7.-This table is similar

Occupation of foreign-born male employees before coming to the United States, by race: Study of employees. Tables 8, 53, and 66.In these tables are shown the number of foreign-born male employees who, just prior to coming to the United States, were in the same industry in which they were employed at the time of the investigation, in farming or farm labor, in general labor, etc. Persons who report their occupation as "none," " at home," or " at school," are excluded from these tables. In all industries where employees of both sexes report the tabulation is by sex.

Number of males 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 9.-This table shows the number of male members of households 16 years of age or over who were at home and at school, and classify those who have had employment within the year ending with the taking of the schedule according to the industry in which they have been employed. The main headings used in these tables follow the classification of the United States Census with the following modifications: General labor is here separated from domestic and personal service; fishing, mining, and quarrying are separated from

manufacturing and mechanical pursuits; trade and transportation are distinct from each other. The headings as here used are:

1. Agricultural pursuits.

2. Domestic and personal service.

3. Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits.

4. Mining (including quarrying).

5. General labor.

6. Professional service.

7. Trade.

8. Transportation.

9. Fishing.

The term "Domestic and personal service" includes besides domestic servants certain classes of persons not professional who serve the general public, such as policemen, city firemen, and employees at places of amusement.

Number of females 16 years of age or over in each specified industry, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 10.-This table is similar to Table 9, relating to males.

Number of male employees 18 years of age or over earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 11, 54, and 67.-Employees are here classified according to the amount of their earnings. In some industries earnings are reported by the week and in others by the day. Where employment is on the time basis the data are for "rate of pay;" where employment is on the piece basis the data are for "earnings."

Number of male employees 14 and under 18 years of age earning each specified amount per week, by general nativity and race: Study of employees. Tables 12, 55, and 68.-These tables are similar to Tables 11, 54, and 67, relating to earnings of males 18 years of age or over. In practically all industries the number of employees under 14 was too small for tabulation.

Number of male heads of families earning each specified amount per year, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 13.-This table forms a part of the study of family incomes. The information relative to income was secured for the year ending at the time of the agent's visit.

In the "selection of families" for the completion of data concerning family income, the following classes were omitted:

1. Families established less than one year.

2. Families living two or more per household under complicated financial arrangements, so that exact income from boarders or other sources within the household are uncertain.

3. Families with earnings or contributions representing entire earnings of members who are profit earners or whose net earnings are for any other reason uncertain. That part of the income in this study represented by earnings is net.

Practically all of the heads of families included in these tables are also heads of households. They are here classified according to the amount of their earnings for the year.

Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 14-Male wage-earners are here classified according to the amount of their earnings for the year ending at the time of the agent's visit. Persons who receive board and lodging in addition to

a money wage and persons who receive tips or other perquisites over and above a stipulated wage are not included in this table.

Yearly earnings (approximate) of females 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 15.-This table is similar to Table 14, which relates to earnings of males.

Amount of family income per year, by general nativity and race of head of family: Study of households. Table 16.-The families included in this table are the same as in Table 13. These families are here classified according to the amount of total income for the year from all sources. Table 17 shows the sources of this income. Income from "boarders or lodgers" and in some cases from "other sources" is gross.

Number of families having an income within the year from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family: Study of households. Table 17.-The families included in this table are the same as in Table 13. The number of families with income from earnings of husband, the number with income from earnings of wife, etc., are shown here. The terms "husband" and "wife" include the widowed, divorced, and deserted. The principal items under "Other sources are: (1) Receipts from investments, which, in the great majority of cases, are in the form of rentals; and (2) contributions of friends or relatives, who pay either more or less than the rates of boarders or lodgers. Attention is called to the fact that the family may have had income from some source, for example, from boarders or lodgers, within the year, but not at the time the schedule was taken.

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Source of family income in detail, by general nativity and race of head of family: Study of households. Table 18.-The families included in this table are the same as in Table 13. They are classified here according to the source or combination, of sources upon which the family has been wholly dependent for income within the year ending with the taking of the schedule. The four items which make up all incomes except those entered in the last column of the table are earnings of husband, earnings of wife, contributions of children, and payments of boarders or lodgers. It will be noted that all families deriving their entire income from husband, wife, and children have a net income and that all incomes including the payments of boarders or lodgers are gross; also that all families having any part of their income from money invested appear in the last column of this table. Months worked during the past year by persons 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual: Study of households. Table 19.-Members of households of working age who have been employed outside of the home within the year ending with the taking of the schedule are here classified according to whether they have worked under three months, three and under four months, four and under five months, etc. For the purposes of the table all cases of part-time employment have been reduced to a full-time basis; for example, an employee who has worked seven months on half time is counted as having worked three and one-half months. The data are shown for males and females separately.

Number and class of households, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 20.-All households are here divided into "Family households," or households where a family is present and "Group households," or households composed of a group of persons, no family included. Family households are further classified as being with or without boarders or lodgers. Family households with neither boarders nor lodgers are subdivided into those consisting of a single family and those consisting of two or more families living in the same apartment and sharing one or more rooms. Family households with boarders or lodgers are subdivided into those who keep boarders and those who keep only lodgers. Households keeping both boarders and lodgers are here entered as households with boarders. "Boarders" are persons to whom both food and lodging are furnished.

Number of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 21.-In this table appear only the renting households, which report the rent paid for the unfurnished rooms which they use for living purposes. The following classes are thus excluded from the table:

1. Households which rent apartment furnished.

2. Households which pay an undivided sum for apartment and place of business.

3. Resident landlords who pay an undivided sum for the apartment they occupy and other apartments which they sublet.

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4. Households which pay ground rent."

Number of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 22.-The households included in this table are the same as in Table 21.

Number of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 23.-The households included in this table are the same as in Table 21.

Number of households keeping boarders and lodgers and number of boarders and lodgers, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 24.-This table gives the number of households keeping boarders and the number keeping only lodgers; it also shows the total number of boarders and of lodgers. "Boarders" both sleep and eat with the household. Households which keep lodgers in addition to boarders are classified with the households keeping boarders. Among certain races it is customary to include one of the following accommodations with the nominal price of lodging: (1) Coffee or soup is served once a day; (2) the lodger is allowed the privilege of cooking his food on the kitchen stove; (3) the housewife buys the lodger's food, having the price charged in his account book, and prepares the food for him. Persons with such financial arrangements consider themselves lodgers and have been classified as such in this table.

Number of persons per household in apartments of each specified size, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 25.-Households are here classified according to the number of rooms which they occupy and are further classified

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