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under 14 years of age at time of coming to this country who can speak English, while somewhat over 90 per cent of the Finnish and 80 per cent of the Croatian employes have this ability. Of employees who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, the Germans show 100 per cent who can speak English. The French Canadians show over 90 per cent, while the other races given show considerably smaller proportions, the Finns showing only 34.7 per cent who are able to speak English.

The relation between the period of residence in this country and the ability of members of non-English-speaking races to speak Eng. lish is exhibited in the table next presented. It shows, by years in the United States and race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who speak English. TABLE 89.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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Of 3,513 foreign-born male employees, 25.8 per cent who have been in the United States under five years can speak English, 60.6 per cent with a residence of from five to nine years, and 87.1 per cent who have been in the United States ten years or over can speak English, while 52.7 per cent of all foreign-born male employees reporting can speak English. Of the foreign-born employees who have been in the United States under five years, the French Canadians show the highest per cent who can speak English, followed by Swedes and Slovenians in very much smaller proportions, while North Italians, Croatians, and Finns show a percentage considerably smaller than that of the last-mentioned races. Germans show no persons in this group, who can speak English. Of foreign-born employees with a residence of from five to nine years, the French Canadians show the highest percentage and the Finns the lowest percentage who can speak English, while in the group of employees who have been in the United States ten years or over, the Germans and the Slovenians show 100 per cent who can speak English and the Finns only 71.5 per cent who have this ability. In the totals, German employees show 100 per cent, the French Canadians over 95 per cent, and the Swedes over 80 per cent, while the North Italians and the Slovenians exhibit considerably over 50 per cent and the Croatians and the Finnish considerably under 50 per cent who are able to speak English.

GENERAL TABLES.

I.--GENERAL SURVEY OF THE COPPER MINING AND SMELTING INDUS

TRY: TABLES 1-50. II.-COPPER MINING AND SMELTING IN MICHIGAN: TABLES 51-63. II.-COPPER MINING AND SMELTING IN TENNESSEE: TABLES 64–76.

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GENERAL EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:

1. Native-born of native father.

Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean. 2. Native-born of foreign father.

Persons under this group are further classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

In the study of households information is presented

1. By general nativity and race of the “individual” in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.

2. By general nativity and race of “head of family” in tables concerned with family matters, for example, family income.

3. By general nativity and race of head of household” in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between “family” and “household” is dependent upon the use of the term "apartment."

An“ apartment” is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living, namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping, are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house; or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment; or it may be a corner or a wareroom or the back of a storeroom partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered the entire number of rooms has been considered one apartment. 48296° VOL 16--11- -8

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The “household ” includes all persons living within an apartment without regard to the relationships which exist among them. The household may consist of one or more families, with or without boarders or lodgers; or it may consist of a group of persons living together, no family included; or it may consist of various combinations of families, *- groups," and boarders or lodgers.

The term “ family," as used throughout these tables, refers in general to the immediate family composed of husband, wife, and children. Groups of persons among whom none of these relations exist are not considered families. Households in which complicated relationships exist have been resolved into the component immediate families. Remnants of families maintaining a home are considered families when either husband or wife is present.

The general tables show results of two practically independent studies, as follows:

STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.

All tables headed “Study of households" are based on information from the schedule which was filled out for certain selected households in each of the several communities. Names and addresses were secured of employees in a given industry who were heads of households, and for each such household a schedule was filled out by an agent of this Commission, who visited the apartment and secured detailed information, so far as possible, for every occupant, as well as data in regard to family and household organization and status at the time of the visit.

STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.

The general tables, headed “Study of employees,” present data from the schedule relating only to the individual employee. This schedule was filled out by the employee himself or by someone detailed by the employer to the task, to whom the employee furnished data.

The general tables of this series, therefore, concern only the history and present status of the employee, while the other series, as has been stated, presents data not only for certain of the employees, but also for members of their households. All data included under the “Study of employees” are tabulated by sex and by general nativity and race of individual. For the native-born of foreign father the classification is by country of birth of father, and not by race of father.

DESCRIPTION OF TABLES.

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Total number of households and persons studied, by general nativity and race of head of household: Study of households. Table 1.- This table enumerates the households studied of each race, the aggregate of the members of the households of each race, and the persons, male and female, for whom detailed information was secured. All members of households appear in this table under the general nativity and race of head of householl.

Number of persons for whom detailed information was sccured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual: Study of house

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