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TABLE 87.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of the total number of male employees included in the above table, 52.7 per cent speak English. All of the Germans reporting and over 95 per cent each of the French Canadians and Norwegians speak English. Comparing these races with the races of more recent immigration, it will be seen that the latter show a much smaller proportion who speak English. Less than 50 per cent each of the Croatians, Finns, Lithuanians, and Magyars speak English, and the proportion for the North Italians, South Italians, Poles, and Sloveníans is not largely in excess of 50 per cent.

In the following table a comparison of the ability to speak English is made of foreign-born male employees of non-English-speaking races according to age at time of coming to the United States and race:

TABLE 88.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The preceding table shows that of 3,513 male employees from whom information was secured 97.5 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States can speak English. Of employees who were 14 years of age or over at time of landing, 49.4 per cent can speak English, while of the total number reporting irrespective of age at time of coming to this country, 52.7 per cent are able to speak English. The French Canadian, German, and North Italian employees show 100 per cent of those who were

under 14 years of age at time of coming to this country who can speak English, while somewhat over 90 per cent of the Finnish and 80 per cent of the Croatian employes have this ability. Of employees who were 14 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, the Germans show 100 per cent who can speak English. The French Canadians show over 90 per cent, while the other races given show considerably smaller proportions, the Finns showing only 34.7 per cent who are able to speak English.

The relation between the period of residence in this country_and the ability of members of non-English-speaking races to speak English is exhibited in the table next presented. It shows, by years in the United States and race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees who speak English.

TABLE 89.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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Of 3,513 foreign-born male employees, 25.8 per cent who have been in the United States under five years can speak English, 60.6 per cent with a residence of from five to nine years, and 87.1 per cent who have been in the United States ten years or over can speak English, while 52.7 per cent of all foreign-born male employees reporting can speak English. Of the foreign-born employees who have been in the United States under five years, the French Canadians show the highest per cent who can speak English, followed by Swedes and Slovenians in very much smaller proportions, while North Italians, Croatians, and Finns show a percentage considerably smaller than that of the last-mentioned races. Germans show no persons in this group who can speak English. Of foreign-born employees with a residence of from five to nine years, the French Canadians show the highest percentage and the Finns the lowest percentage who can speak English, while in the group of employees who have been in the United States ten years or over, the Germans and the Slovenians show 100 per cent who can speak English and the Finns only 71.5 per cent who have this ability. In the totals, German employees show 100 per cent, the French Canadians over 95 per cent, and the Swedes over 80 per cent, while the North Italians and the Slovenians exhibit considerably over 50 per cent and the Croatians and the Finnish considerably under 50 per cent who are able to speak English.

GENERAL TABLES.

I. GENERAL SURVEY OF THE COPPER MINING AND SMELTING INDUSTRY: TABLES 1-50.

II. COPPER MINING AND SMELTING IN MICHIGAN: TABLES 51-63. III. COPPER MINING AND SMELTING IN TENNESSEE: TABLES 64–76.

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GENERAL EXPLANATION OF TABLES.

Persons of native birth have been divided into two general groups and further subdivided under each of the two, as follows:

1. Native-born of native father.

Persons under this group are classified as White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, and Korean.

2. Native-born of foreign father.

Persons under this group are further classified according to race of father in all tables where the data were secured for households, and according to country of birth of father in all tables where the data were secured for employees. Where classification is by race of father the classification used for several years by the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

Persons of foreign birth are classified according to race (or people). The classification of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization is followed.

In the study of households information is presented

1. By general nativity and race of the "individual" in all tables which show facts which are personal in their nature, such as English speaking, occupation, or conjugal condition.

2. By general nativity and race of "head of family" in tables concerned with family matters, for example, family income.

3. By general nativity and race of "head of household" in all tables dealing with living conditions, among which are tables showing the composition of the household and the number of persons per room and per sleeping room. The distinction which has been made throughout this study between "family" and "household " is dependent upon the use of the term "apartment."

An "apartment" is a room or rooms within which all the usual daily processes of living, namely, cooking, eating, and sleeping, are carried on by the occupants. According to this definition an apartment may be, for example, a whole house; or it may be a single room of what was originally intended as an apartment; or it may be a corner or a wareroom or the back of a storeroom partitioned off and set aside for household uses. Two or more groups of occupants with distinctly separate money interests frequently rent a number of rooms jointly, occupying certain rooms separately but sharing one or more, usually the kitchen, or kitchen and living room. Under these conditions neither the rooms used by the one group of occupants nor those used by the other can be considered an apartment, since the room used in common must in such case be considered a room in each apartment and thus be counted twice. Where these conditions have been encountered the entire number of rooms has been considered. one apartment.

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