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TABLE 84.Per cent of male employees within each age group, by general nativity and

race-Continued.

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Of the 5,632 male employees reported in the foregoing table, 23.5 per cent are between the ages of 20 and 24 years. The proportion of second rank, 20.5 per cent, is shown by those who are from 25 to 29 years of age. When compared with the native-born of foreign father, the foreign-born show the smaller proportions between the ages of 14 and 19 years, 20 to 24 years, and 35 to 44 years, and the larger proportions in each other age group. Only two races, the Croatian and South Italian, show a proportion of males below the age of 14 and in each of these cases the percentage is very small. The Irish and Swedes report no persons who are below the age of 20. The Croatians show the largest proportion who are between the ages of 14 and 19, and likewise the largest proportion of males who are between the ages of 20 and 24, the proportion in the latter case being 31.7 per cent. Between 20 and 30 per cent of the English, Finnish, North and South Italian, Lithuanian, and Slovenian races are between the ages of 20 and 24 years. None of the Irish, and less than 10 per cent each of the Germans and Norwegians, are between the ages of 30 and 34. The Canadians other than French, with 37.7 per cent, show the largest proportion who are from 35 to 44 years of age, and are closely followed by the Swedes who show 31.5 per cent. None of the South Italians, Lithuanians, or Slovenians appear in the period of 55 or more years. The races of older immigration, such as the Germans, Irish, French Canadians, and Norwegians, have the largest representation in this age group.

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CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship-Ability to speak English—[Text Tables 85 to 89 and General Tables

61 to 63).

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which the immigrant employees have attained to citizenship, as well as their interest in acquiring citizenship, is set forth in the series of tables next submitted. The first table, which immediately follows, shows by race the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who had been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country.

TABLE 85.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been

in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Total..

1,320

540

420

40.9

31.8

a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

Of the 1,320 males included in the preceding table, 40.9 per cent are fully naturalized and 31.8 per cent have first papers only, leaving 27.3 per cent who have manifested no interest in civic affairs. Of the several races for whom percentages are computed the German shows the largest and the Croatian the smallest proportion who are fully naturalized, while the French Canadian shows the largest and the Croatian again the smallest proportion who have first papers only.

The tendency of mine workers of foreign birth to acquire citizenship after designated periods of residence in this country is set forth in the table next presented, which shows by years in the United States and race the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States.

TABLE 86.-Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21

years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

In United States 5 to 9

years.

In United States 10

years or over.

In United States 5

years or over.

Race.

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Of 1,320 males studied in the above table, 40.9 per cent are fully naturalized and 31.8 per cent have first papers only, leaving 27.3 per cent manifesting no interest in civic affairs. A larger proportion of males with a period of residence covering ten years or over in the United States than of those with a period of residence of from five to nine years are fully naturalized.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The extent to which employees of foreign birth and of non-Englishspeaking races have acquired the ability to speak English is set forth according to race in the table next submitted.

TABLE 87.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of the total number of male employees included in the above table, 52.7 per cent speak English. All of the Germans reporting and over 95 per cent each of the French Canadians and Norwegians speak English. Comparing these races with the races of more recent immigration, it will be seen that the latter show a much smaller proportion who speak English. Less than 50 per cent each of the Croatians, Finns, Lithuanians, and Magyars speak English, and the proportion for the North Italians, South Italians, Poles, and Slovenians is not largely in excess of 50 per cent.

In the following table a comparison of the ability to speak English is made of foreign-born male employees of non-English-speaking races according to age at time of coming to the United States and race: TABLE 88.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time of

coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table ineludes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The preceding table shows that of 3,513 male employees from whom information was secured 97.5 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States can speak English. Of employees who were 14 years of age or over at time of landing, 49.4 per cent can speak English, while of the total number reporting irrespective of age at time of coming to this country, 52.7 per cent are able to speak English. The French Canadian, German, and North Italian employees show 100 per cent of those who were

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