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XV-PEACE AND DISARMAMENT (GOALS OF PUBLIC SOCIAL POLICY-NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS)
Now, for the first time in the history of mankind, we must be concerned that the destruction of our civilization, and perhaps of all human life, might happen at any moment. The launching of space satellites and missiles introduces a new dimension to the disarmament question-the possibility of pushbutton war. The means are now at hand for the delivery of weapons of mass destruction to any corner of the earth. For this reason, it is essential that we seek every means, including disarmament and political settlements under law, to insure peace.
The prospects of total destruction in all-out nuclear war, which might possibly result even from an accident, is only a part of the price that man must pay until disarmament is achieved.
The fact that a major portion of our Federal expenditures is going into defense spending has a restrictive effect upon the availability of funds for important health and welfare services. At the same time, the seeming dependence of the national economy upon stimulation from defense spending creates the hazard that armament spending may be viewed as a necessary underpinning for the economic well-being of the American people.
Orderly conversion from military to nonmilitary spending could provide continuing employment, and at the same time meet human needs in such fields as school construction, housing and urban renewal, medical research, and the developments on new economic frontiers.
Psychological damage is inevitably involved in constant and continuing preoccupation with methods for destroying one's fellow man. Social workers know only too well the impact on human behavior of living in an environment of fear, tensions, and insecurity. They are troubled by the distrust, suspicion, and sometimes hate of people who are different, which develop in a world preoccupied with preparation for war. Such an environment leads to the erosion of moral values. It takes from the people that sense of security and faith in the future which they need to achieve the maximum growth.
Moreover, the diversion of funds from constructive human purposes itself perpetuates conditions of want and deprivation which are breeding grounds for conflict. As social workers we appreciate the need for creating an atmosphere of peace which will enable all human beings to function in a constructive manner for their own greatest fulfillment and for healthy community living.
Only in such an atmosphere can individuals develop a faith in the future and learn to utilize all human and society's resources for a better and more wholesome life for all.
"An ultimate goal of the United States is a world that is free from the scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of armaments in which use of force has been subordinated to a rule of law; and in which international adjustments to a changing world are achieved peacefully." (Quoted from Purposes of U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.) A parallel objective is to make available moneys, materials, and manpower released in the process of disarmament to improve health and living standards of all people, by both government and private efforts.
To achieve these objectives, the following recommendations are made:
1. Under commitments to freedom and justice for all, support for efforts which work toward a climate in which a peaceful world can be established.
2. Support of a program for the reduction and elimination of all weapons of warfare among all nations.
3. Because of the dual purpose and character of space vehicles and satellites, support of a program of international control of such instruments.
4. Support of all possible efforts toward the abolition of nuclear weapon tests by all countries.
5. Support and reinforcement of the United Nations as the instrument for world peace.
6. Encouragement, stimulation, and participation at all levels of government and in nongovernmental organizations in our country in the study and planning for the redeployment of materials and manpower which will become available as disarmament progresses.
7. Stimulation and support for the use of governmental funds freed from military purposes to meet basic human needs in education, housing, health and welfare services and for cooperative efforts with other governments to make these benefits available to the people of the world.
8. Initiation and participation in joint efforts with other organizations in support of peace and disarmament.
NATIONAL FARMERS UNION,
Hon. J. WILLIAM FULBRIGHT,
Chairman, Committee on Foreign Relations,
MY DEAR BILL: I respectfully request that this letter be made a part of the record of hearings on S. Con. Res. 32. This resolution is strongly supported by Farmers Union.
I believe that the sense of the resolution is shared in full by our rural citizens. The overwhelming support in farm rural areas for President Johnson was, I believe, an expression of their desire for using every available means in preventing a nuclear war and to build the conditions that will lead to peaceful settlement of disputes between nations.
These are overriding objectives. As important as domestic problems are, their solution in the long run is of no value unless we are able to maintain peace. The delegates expressed their interest and concern in the peaceful settlement of disputes between nations through a policy statement adopted at the 1965 convention of Farmers Union as follows:
"The foreign policy of the United States should be shaped to help assure dignity and justice for human beings everywhere. Our power and our strength should be tempered with understanding of others; our national self-interest should be tempered by a recognition of the interests of other peoples; and our firmness of purpose must never exclude humanitarianism and charity.
"No aim of our foreign policy is more important than the assurance of a just peace. In the nuclear age, there is no national alternative to peace.
"The road to peace is long and tortuous and America must lead the march on this urgent journey. The attainment of a just and lasting peace requires planning as well as determination. We favor a broadened effort by our Government to establish a climate for peace and to eliminate the conditions which breed dissatisfaction, mistrust, and conflict-hunger, disease, illiteracy, discrimination, and deficient economic development. Further, our Government should actively plan for the gradual transition of our economy to a truly peacetime basis as world conditions permit and to prevent economic dislocations which might otherwise develop from reduced military expenditures.
"SUPPORT FOR THE UNITED NATIONS
"We support the United Nations as the most promising and fruitful meetingplace of nations for developing peaceful solutions to world problems. We urge strengthening of the United Nations and of its specialized agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization. We favor a United Nations emergency police force and more effective use of the International Council of Justice for the peaceful settlement of international disputes, and the prevention or punishment of aggression. We, at all times, welcome realistic efforts to establish economic unions of democratic nations on a regional or worldwide basis.
"Since it is now estimated that the world powers now have destructive explosives equal to 10 tons of TNT for every man, woman, and child in the world, we recommend that the U.S. Congress direct that at least 2 percent of the budget allocated for national defense be earmarked to buy food and fiber for needy people both at home and abroad, this to be in addition to funds now being used for food-for-peace and other programs.
"Our objective is to achieve step-by-step worldwide disarmament, with effective international inspection systems and controls.
"We favor adequate military forces in being able to meet our commitments abroad and to defend our country. However, our national policy of procuring men for military service is neither just nor effective, and it does not meet the need of the Armed Forces for technically trained and highly skilled manpower. We urge, therefore, the President to appoint a National Military Manpower Commission composed of distinguished American citizens to thoroughly review this problem and report directly to the President.
"WORLD FOOD POLICY
"Food and fiber should be utilized as an essential part of the foreign policy of the United States. We should make full use, in conjunction with other nations which have food and fiber abundance, of the unique opportunity to promote widespread and more rapid economic development in less-developed nations through the use of food and fiber. Such a multilateral program should make use of the world food program operated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
"We urge greater use of long-term, low-interest rate food and fiber loans authorized under Public Law 480. Donation programs, both direct and through private nonprofit U.S. organizations, should be used when and where needed to assist needy people.
"We fully support the American Freedom From Hunger Foundations, created to further efforts of the United Nations to use food and fiber to increase living standards and promote economic development."
JAMES G. PATTON.
STATEMENT BY SENATOR GEORGE MCGOVERN
Mr. Chairman, as a Senate cosponsor of Senate Concurrent Resolution 32, the planning-for-peace resolution, I wish to express to this committee my strong support for this measure.
When the distinguished principal sponsor of Senate Concurrent Resolution 32, Senator Joseph Clark, introduced this legislation, he stated that its purpose was to "express our support and encouragement for new initiatives to lessen the danger of war by pressing for disarmament and strengthening the rule of law in dealings between nations."
During recent years the nations of the world have taken several important steps to further insure a just and lasting peace. Not the least of these was the signing of the limited nuclear test ban treaty, which stands as one of the great monuments to our late President, John Kennedy. The "hot-line" agreement was signed to guard against the danger of international conflict. And the United Nations passed a resolution against weapons in space.
However, recent world events also demonstrate clearly that other safeguards are needed if peace is to be maintained in the world and nuclear conflict avoided. We must continue our efforts to strengthen and build international machinery capable of resolving disputes among nations. The United States has long championed the cause of world peace through the rule of law. In these troubled times it is, I believe, of the utmost importance that our Government continue to take the lead in the search for ways and means to secure peace throughout the world. The planning-for-peace resolution recognizes this basic truth.
At a time when nuclear capacity is increasingly viewed as a sign of national prestige, I believe that it is more important than ever to develop international controls over the use of weapons. The spread of nuclear weapons raises a new and terrifying threat to the peace of the world. It is a threat which we cannot
afford to ignore. The planning-for-peace resolution recognizes this central fact. Passage of this concurrent resolution will underscore the strong congressional desire to work with and assist our President in the difficult task of securing an ordered and lasting peace. I sincerely hope that this resolution will have the support of my colleagues in the Senate.
STATEMENT OF SENATOR FRANK E. Moss
Mr. President, today I would like to voice my strong support for the planningfor-peace resolution, of which I am proud to be one of the cosponsors. Within our country, this resolution would create a fresh impetus to devise the effective peacekeeping machinery which is imperative if our civilization is to survive. Outside our boundaries, this resolution would reaffirm to the peoples of the world the commitment of the United States to a secure and lasting peace.
The United States is already firmly on record in favor of the ultimate objective of the planning-for-peace resolution. The Arms Control and Disarmament Act, which was signed on September 26, 1961, stated:
"An ultimate goal of the United States is a world which is free from the Scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of armaments; in which the use of force has been subordinated to the rule of law; and in which international adjustments to a changing world are achieved peacefully."
The establishment of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency by that act has resulted in visible improvements in the preparations by the United States for disarmament negotiations. It has resulted in much more study being given to the various problems surrounding progress toward true peace. It has resulted in many more people spending their full time and energy on the attainment of disarmament and the building up of a new peacekeeping system.
In the past 2 years the intensified search for methods to promote disarmament has led to the first concrete steps in this direction since the beginning of the cold war. The most important of these was the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater, signed August 5, 1963. However, the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly calling upon all states to refrain from placing weapons of mass destruction into orbit around the earth, or stationing such weapons in outer space in any other manner, which was adopted on October 17, 1963, was also a measure of great significance for the future development of space. The mutual decision to reduce the production of enriched uranium which have been taken by the United States and the Soviet Union will slow down the stockpiling of nuclear weapons and may eventually pave the way for reducing those stockpiles. The "hot-line" agreement to establish a direct communications link between Washington and Moscow will not only insure the ability to communicate immediately in the case of emergency, but may also pave the way for additional measures to reduce the possibility of war resulting from accident or misunderstanding.
A momentum for real progress toward disarmament was set into motion by these measures. The planning-for-peace resolution can help prevent that momentum from being lost in the crisis over Vietnam or the Dominican Republic or any other of the steady stream of explosive situations with which we are confronted. The adoption of this resolution can lead to procedures in which international political problems and disputes will not create explosive situations which endanger the whole world, but rather will be settled by peaceful means.
Under the action clauses of this resolution, Congress would affirm its support for the President's efforts to achieve peace and disarmament under effective controls and to develop international institutions capable of permanently keeping the peace. It would request the President to formulate as soon as possible specific proposals for an international authority to keep the peace when an effectively controlled system of disarmament was in operation. The resolution would call particularly for study of whether the development of machinery for peacekeeping might best be achieved by revision of the United Nations Charter, a new treaty, or a combination of the two. Finally, the resolution would call upon the President to make these proposals available to the Congress and to the public, and to transmit copies of the resolution to the heads of government of all the nations of the world.
It is already U.S. policy that as armaments were reduced under a system of disarmament, it would be necessary to progressively strengthen the capacity of the United Nations to insure international security and the peaceful settlement of disputes. Under the Outline of Basic Provisions of a Treaty on General
and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World, which the United States submitted to the 18th National Disarmament Committee on April 18, 1962, general proposals are made for the strengthening of peacekeeping machinery to accompany disarmament, such as the establishment of an international disarmament organization and a United Nations peace force and the strengthening of the structure of the United Nations to improve its capability to maintain peace. The planning for peace resolution would call for the formulation of detailed proposals along these lines, thus encouraging the policymakers not only to study peacekeeping arrangements but to come to decisions on what the United States really seeks.
The peacekeeping machinery mentioned in the resolution includes an international disarmament organization, a permanent world peace force, world tribunals for the peaceful settlement of all disputes not settled by negotiations, other international institutions necessary for the enforcement of world peace under the rule of law, and appropriate and reliable financial arrangements for the support of the peacekeeping machinery.
It is my firm belief that the passage of the planning for peace resolution will help us move closer to the goal of peace. While we have grown used to a state of constant international tension, we need not grow resigned to it. While we demonstrate our willingness to maintain and use the military force necessary to defend freedom, we need not abandon our intention to develop a better method for preserving both peace and freedom. By encouraging still more planning for peace in the United States, I believe we will generate more efforts toward peace throughout the world.
STATEMENT OF SENATOR WILLIAM PROXMIRE
Mr. Chairman, I consider the planning for peace resolution that is being studied by this committee one of the most important matters now before the Congress.
The grave crises in Vietnam and the Dominican Republic dramatize the urgent need for a crash program to develop peacekeeping machinery that will provide for the peaceful solution of international conflicts.
Certainly the presence of more than 40,000 American troops in Vietnam and more than 15,000 of our troops in the Dominican Republic is dramatic proof of the urgent need for peacekeeping machinery.
Certainly it is not necessary to tell members of this distinguished committee that the world situation is grave and there appears to be little prospect for improvement in the coming years. Until we can develop the necessary machinery to settle such conflicts, as in Vietnam, peacefully, we are going to have to live with the threat of war hanging heavily over our heads.
Some say it is impractical to discuss disarmament and peace plans at a time when tensions are building and guns are firing. Actually, the present crises make it all the more urgent to begin such discussions and planning. The tragedy of current conflicts as well as the threat of all-out war should heighten the incentive for peace planning, not diminish it.
This resolution would give President Johnson congressional support for his effort to achieve peace and disarmament under legally effective controls. It would also urge the President to formulate a plan to strengthen existing international institutions and developing new ones designed to keep the peace. The resolution asks the President to consider the need for establishing:
An international disarmament organization.
World tribunals to settle international disputes.
International institutions necessary to enforce world peace.
An orderly method of financing the peacekeeping machinery. While such efforts in the past have not been entirely successful, some progress has been made. We must continue and accelerate our efforts to achieve peace. There is no alternative.
Senator CLARK. The committee will stand in recess until 10 a.m., tomorrow. The record will be available in room 4229 for any corrections which witnesses may want to make in their testimony at that time.
(Whereupon, at 1 p.m., the committee recessed, to reconvene at 10 a.m., May 12, 1965.)