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We are committed as signatories to the charters of the United Na. tions and the Organization of American States, to the settlement of in. ternational disputes by orderly recourse to the international machinery established in those two organizations. And yet, we see that, in the case of Vietnam, the United Nations has not been involved, though certainly the peace of the world is threatened by an enlargement of that struggle; and in the Dominican crisis, we see that our Government has violated the OAS Charter by intervening unilaterally with military force, and only taking our case to the OAS after the fait accompli.

These actions are of great concern to those who believe in international cooperation. We have just marked the 20th anniversary of the end of hostilities in the European theater of World War II. That great and terrible conflict-World War II—resulted in over 35 million deaths and untold miseries in terms of the injured and maimed, the widowed and orphaned and uprooted and turn humanity. In order to prevent a recurrence of that kind of tragedy and the international anarchy which spawned it, the United Nations was founded.

We find a great reservoir of support for the United Nations in this country, public opinion polls have found that

the overwhelming majority of Americans support the U.N. The Congress of the United States, in 1962, underlined its own tangible support by voting for the $100 million bond issue to help the U.N. in its financial crisis.

I have attached to this statement resolutions of our Unitarian Universalist General Assemblies in 1963 and 1964 endorsing both the international cooperation year of the United Nations and the efforts for arms control and disarmament leading to general and complete disarmament.

Since our 1963 disarmament resolution was passed, the United States has been a signatory to the partial nuclear test ban treaty. Other encouraging steps have been taken. Establishment of the hotline between Washington and Moscow, the U.N. resolution banning nuclear weaponry in space, and there have been others in both the United States and the Soviet Union to reduce excessive defense expenditures, including the closing of some of our bases and the mutual reduction and production in production of fissionable materials.

But I want to ask what have we done lately in this field. Has our increasing commitment in Vietnam and perhaps the necessity of pay. ing more attention to the domestic concerns of equal rights and poverty, has this slowed down the momentum gained by the test ban treaty ?

Have we allowed this momentum to dissipate and indeed to run out? The promise of the resolution of Senator Clark and his colleagues is that once again we will get moving in the direction of our stated goals of peace and general and complete disarmament under effective international law and control. Senator Clark has done his nation a great service by putting disarmament once again on the agenda. Resolution 32 calls on the President to formulate specific and detailed proposals to implement our objectives of "general and complete disarmament effectively guaranteed by adequate inspection and controls," and asks the President to consider the establishment of an international disarmament organization, a permanent world peace force, the development of world tribunals for the peaceful settlement of international

disputes not settled by negotiations; as well as other international institutions necessary for enforcement of world peace under the rule of law; and to work for financial arrangements which will best support effective peacekeeping machinery.

RESOLUTION ENCOURAGES PRESIDENTIAL INITIATIVE

Quite properly, the resolution is flexible in that it leaves to the President the choice of whether to bring all this about through revision of the charter of the United Nations, by a new treaty, or by a combination of the two.

If I were to suggest any changes in the resolution, one would be to ask that wording be added or inserted to bring the Congress more fully into the quest for disarmament. The resolution requests certain actions of the President. It might be desirable, in addition, to resolve to ask the Congress itself to establish a joint congressional committee on arms control and disarmament, composed of members of the Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs Committees, the two Armed Services Committees and the Joint Atomic Energy Commission, to keep members of Congress informed on U.S. efforts in the disarmament field and to focus congressional attention on this problem.

Our General Assembly of 1963 so resolved to ask Congress to establish such a joint committee.

This resolution, if passed by Congress, will strengthen the President's hand, making it possible for him to make appropriate initiatives toward insuring peace. At the same time, it will go far toward allaying the fears of many responsible persons and governments who have been made uneasy by recent events in which our Government has had a hand. This President and this Congress earnestly desire peace and international order. I am convinced of this, but the world needs a concrete, tangible expression of this desire. Senate Concurrent Resolution 32 is that expression. I wholeheartedly endorse and commend this resolution and urge its speedy adoption.

For those who will, inevitably, label this resolution and its sponsors impractical and visionary, allow me to quote from a very wise old proverb:

Where there is no vision, the people perish; but he that keepeth the law, happy is he.

In the nuclear age, in the very dangerous world in which we live, it is incumbent on the lawgivers and lawmakers to do everything in their power to harness the dreadful potential of the bomb and to devise those institutions and procedures of law which will implement our vision of a world of peace and brotherhood and freedom.

(Complete statement of Robert Edwards Jones, with attachments, are as follows:)

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT EDWARDS JONES, DIRECTOR, WASHINGTON OFFICE, DEPART

MENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, UNITARIAN UNIVERSALIST ASSOCIATION Dear Mr. Chairman and members of the Foreign Relations Committee, it is especially welcome and timely for this important committee of the Senate to hold hearings on the planning-for-peace resolution, Senate Concurrent Resolution 32, introduced by Senator Clark and other distinguished Members of the Senate.

I am here today representing the Unitarian Universalist Association of Churches and Fellowships in North America and have been asked to inform the

committee that Dr. Dana McLean Greeley, president of the Unitarian Universalist denomination, who was unable to be here, wishes it be known that he shares the views which I will express.

The Unitarian Universalist Association welcomes the opportunity to be heard on this resolution—to bear witness to our concern as religious people for peace and disarmament under law. It seems singularly appropriate that this resolution should receive consideration in the Congress at a time when the military and diplomatic actions of the United States in two parts of the world are under rather severe criticism from friend and adversary alike and when our country's actions and motives are so easily misunderstood.

Only 6 days ago, the Congress was asked, in effect, to give the President of the United States a vote of confidence for the administration's conduct of the strug. gle in Vietnam and, by implication, a vote of confidence for U.S. actions in the Dominican Republic. Several Senators voiced reservations and uneasiness over having to vote a supplemental appropriation of $700 million to conduct the war in Vietnam, which was the administration's vehicle for calling for this vote of confidence. Many were disturbed that this vote might be interpreted as giving the President a blank check for further escalation of the war. They earnestly pleaded that the President continue his efforts to find a way to negotiate an end to the war.

Not only Senators, but other citizens of this Nation and responsible leaders and citizens of other nations, including our closest friends in the world, have become uneasy over the course of events in recent weeks in both southeast Asia and Latin America.

Hence, the timeliness of Senator Clark's resolution. Passage of Senate Concurrent Resolution 32 will do much to right the balance, to correct the picture of the United States in the world today. For, rightly or wrongly, the image of the United States at this time is not that of a peace-loving nation.

Rather, it is that of a great power taking unilateral military actions without adequate regard for the sensitivities of other, smaller nations, as in the Dominican situation; and without adequate regard for the dangers of a general war in Asia, involving the commitment of large land armies, as in Vietnam.

We are committed as signatories to the charters of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, to the settlement of international disputes by orderly recourse to the international machinery established in those two organizations. And yet, we see that, in the case of Vietnam, the United Nations has not been involved, though certainly the peace of the world is threatened by an enlargement of that struggle; and in the Dominican crisis, we see that our Government has violated the OAS Charter by intervening unilaterally with military force, and only taking our case to the OAS after the fait accompli.

These actions are of great concern to those who believe in international cooperation. We have just marked the 20th anniversary of the end of hostilities in the European theater of World War II. That great and terrible conflictWorld War II-resulted in over 35 million deaths and untold miseries in terms of the injured and maimed, the widowed and orphaned and uprooted and torn humanity. In order to prevent a recurrence of that kind of tragedy and the international anarchy which spawned it, the United Nations was founded.

We find a great reservoir of support for the United Nations in this country. Public opinion polls have found that the overwhelming majority of Americans support the U.N. The Congress of the United States, in 1962, underlined its own tangible support by voting for the $100 million bond issue to help the U.N. in its financial crisis.

The churches, fortunately, are among the U.N.'s strongest supporters in this country. In our own denomination, we have established an office in New York and we have accredited observers at the U.N. who report regularly to our churches and fellowships. In the local churches we have encouraged the appointment of a person in each congregation who makes it his responsibility to keep the mem. bers informed of issues at the U.N. These persons, called “U.N. Envoys," have often performed a salutary service by refuting unfounded attacks on the U.N. and its purposes and have helped increase understanding in their communities.

Our general assembly of delegates from the churches and fellowships, in 1964, voted to endorse the International Cooperation Year of the U.N. and the ensuing year has been devoted to projects connected with the observance of the ICY.

In the area of disarmament, our 1963 general assembly spoke out in favor of the concept of general and complete disarmament, in the words of our own denominational constitution, “To implement our vision of one world by striving for a world community founded on ideals of brotherhood, justice and peace.”

*

While voicing support for the work of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the delegates resolved to ask the United States and Canadian Governments to instruct their ambassadors to the United Nations "to support proposals for a United Nations committee which would encourage and coordinate research efforts of all nations for disarmament and peace * * *”. In addition, the delegates declared their support of "an inspected test-ban treaty as a preliminary to reasonable disarmament,” because such a treaty would “* * Establish a precedent for an international inspections system which could provide a basis for confidence in other agreements.”

The full text of this and other supporting resolutions of the Unitarian Universalist Association are appended to this statement.

Since our 1963 resolution was passed, the partial nuclear test ban treaty was, of course, promulgated by the United States, the U.S.S.R., and the United Kingdom. Other encouraging steps were taken: the establishment of the "hot line” between Washington and Moscow, the U.N. resolution banning nuclear weaponry in space, and some efforts in both the United States and the Soviet Union to reduce excessive defense expenditures, including the closing of some of our bases and the mutual reduction in production of fissionable materials.

However, with our increasing commitment in Vietnam and perhaps because of the necessity for paying more attention to the domestic concerns of equal rights and poverty, the momentum gained by the test ban treaty has been allowed to dissipate and, indeed, to run out.

The resolution of Senator Clark and his colleagues promises to get us moving once more in the direction of our stated goals—of peace and general and complete disarmament under effective international law and control. Senator Clark has done his Nation a great service by putting disarmament once again on the agenda. Resolution 32 calls on the President to formulate specific and detailed proposals to implement our objectives of "general and complete disarmament effectively guaranteed by adequate inspection and controls," and asks the President to consider the establishment of an international disarmament organization. a permanent world peace force, the development of world tribunals for the peaceful settlement of international disputes not settled by negotiations; as well as other international institutions necessary for enforcement of world peace under the rule of law; and to work for financial arrangements which will best support effective peacekeeping machinery.

Quite properly, the resolution is flexible in that it leaves to the President the choice of whether to bring all this about through revision of the charter of the United Nations, by a new treaty. or by a combination of the two.

If I were to suggest any changes in the resolution, one would be to ask that wording be added or inserted to bring the Congress more fully into the quest for disarmament. The resolution requests certain actions of the President. It might be desirable, in addition, to resolve to ask the Congress itself to establish a Joint Congressional Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament, composed of members of the Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs Committees, the two Armed Se vic Committees and the Joint Atomic Energy Committee, to keep members of Congress informed on U.S. efforts in the disarmament field and to focus congressional attention on this problem.

Our general assembly of 1963 so resolved to ask Congress to establish such a joint committee.

This resolution, if passed by Congress, will strengthen the President's hand, making it possible for him to make appropriate initiatives toward insuring peace. At the same time, it will go far toward allaying the fears of many responsible persons and governments who have been made uneasy by recent events in which our Government has had a hand. This President and this Congress earnestly desire peace and international order. I am convinced of this, but the world needs a concrete, tangible expression of this desire. Senate Concurrent Resolution 32 is that expression. I wholeheartedly endorse and commend this resolution and urge its speedy adoption.

For those who will, inevitably, label this resolution and its sponsors impractical and visionary, allow me to quote from a very wise old proverb :

"Where there is no vision, the people perish; but he that keepeth the law, happy is he.”

In the nuclear age, in the very dangerous world in which we live, it is incumbent on the lawgivers and lawmakers to do everything in their power to harness the dreadful potential of the bomb and to devise those institutions and procedures of law which will. implement our vision of a world of peace and brotherhood and freedom.

ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT

Whereas our ethical, moral, and religious principles set forth in section 2 of our Constitution, “To implement our vision of one world by striving for community founded on ideals of brotherhood, justice and peace;' and

Whereas although general and complete disarmament is one of the stated policies of the U.S. Government, concretely expressed by the establishment of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, there is very little public knowledge of or belief in the practical possibilities of progress in this field; and

Whereas general and complete disarmament leading to world peace is one of the most consistently expressed and most fervently sought after goals of mankind; and

Whereas the Unitarian Universalist Association wishes to make its position, in addition to the position of the U.S. Government, on this critical world issue transparently clear; and

Whereas the traditional concern of liberal religionists to promote and advance world peace may be enhanced by such a clarification of the public record: Therefore be it

Resolved, That the Unitarian Universalist Association urge that:

1. The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency be made permanent and its budget expanded so that its vitally important efforts may be increased and effective personnel be procured ;

2. The U.S. Congress be requested to appoint a Joint Arms Control and Disarmament Committee, composed of members of the Foreign Relations and Foreign Affairs Committees, Defense Committees, and Atomic Energy Committee, to inform Congress on the work of the Agency, and to help activate its program;

3. The United States and Canadian Governments be asked to instruct their Ambassadors to the United Nations to support proposals for a United Nations Committee which would encourage and coordinate research efforts of all nations for disarmament and peace;

4. All Unitarian Universalist Association member societies support and cooperate with peace research and conflict resolution centers, and with other worthy voluntary organizations working for these goals, United States, Canadian, and United Nations studies of the economic effects of disarmament and make available as widely as possible and particularly to those who would be most affected, the results of such studies, as well as the reports of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and the United Nations on the feasibility of national and international economic reconversion to peaceful pursuits ;

5. Our member societies immediately declare their support of the administration's efforts to secure an inspected test-ban treaty as a preliminary to reasonable disarmament, because such a treaty would :

(1) Serve to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons ;
(2) Reduce the dangers of fallout;
(3) Slow down the arms race;
(4) Inhibit weapons development and thereby increase our security; and

(5) Establish a precedent for an international inspections system which could provide a basis for confidence in other agreements.

UNITED NATIONS Whereas the United Nations Assembly adopted unanimously Resolution 1907 on November 21, 1963, urging all member nations to endeavor to promote measures aimed at the elimination of international tension, and

Whereas the U.N. Assembly is convinced that devoting a year to international cooperation would help to bring about increased world understanding and cooperation and thereby facilitate the settlement of major international problems, and

Whereas the U.N. Assembly has designated 1965, the 20th year of the United Nations, as International Cooperation Year: Therefore be it

Resolved, That the Unitarian Universalist Association reaffirm and intensify its support of the United Nations by urging all districts, local groups, churches, and fellowships to give special emphasis to the International Cooperation Year projects of the Unitarian Universalist Association United Nations program.

Senator CLARK. Thank you very much, Mr. Jones. Senator Gore? Thank you so.

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