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location where they could establish their own town, in which would be erected small factories, with sufficient lands tributary to the town site to permit members of the colony to engage in agricultural pursuits. Mr. Pampinella represented that he was a builder, and commanded considerable capital for the colonization project and that he had about 100 families ready to move as soon as he could find a location.
In the same month Mr. Pampinella, accompanied by two other Italians, visited the proposed location and it was chosen as a colony site. In January, 1904, Mr. Pampinella brought 17 members of the colony to the location under consideration, the whole party having been furnished transportation from Washington. They were well pleased and decided to settle at that point. Ten of the party remained on the property. Arrangements were at once made for the purchase of the land and the erection of such buildings as were needed for the headquarters of the colony. During the winter and spring of 1904 four more groups joined the colony.
It seems that Mr. Pampinella was unable to fulfill his agreement with the land company relative to the purchase of the land, surrendering the agreement by default. The land company, however, was desirous of protecting the innocent people and arranged to transfer a small portion of the land-it is understood about 80 acres-in consideration of the money which had been advanced to secure the fulfillment of the contract. No legal obligation, however, was involved in this connection as far as the land company was concerned. It developed that Mr. Pampinella apparently had no funds whatever; that many of the people whom he took were totally unsuited for the conditions existing; that is, they were barbers, tailors, milliners, dressmakers, etc., who claimed to have been attracted by advertisements in New York papers for such parties.
Following the arrival of the settlers at New Palermo several carloads of wood were sent to Mobile, for which, it is alleged, Pampinella received all the money and turned none of it over to the colonists. Some one advanced $700 and constructed two large wooden buildings similar to warehouses, near the railroad, in which the immigrants were housed while they remained in the locality.
During April and May the bad feeling between the colonists and the promoter grew very intense and many of the colonists left in May, 1904, some going to New York, while others secured employment in the South.
When they learned of the difficulties in New Palermo and the suffering that the Italians were undergoing, the small Italian colony at Mobile contributed $110 for their relief. The Italian consul at Mobile, accompanied by Signor Rossi, representing the Italian immigration department, visited the colony, taking with him supplies of bread, bacon, cheese, etc. It was found that the colonists had very little to eat, and that the only live stock in the colony consisted of a goat and a few chickens. The gardens were found to be poorly cared for and only a few vegetables had been planted. In fact there was but one farmer in the colony.
During the summer of 1904 many desertions occurred, and in November, 1904, Pampinella was assassinated by one of the members of the colony, after which the few remaining colonists abandoned the settlement.
The venture was probably a mere promoting scheme organized by an Italian simply to obtain money from his fellow countrymen. It was not a railroad venture nor was the failure of the colony due to the infertility of the soil or the insalubrity of the climate. It is the opinion of those in a position to know the circumstances that if a proper selection had been made of persons who understood agriculture and were adapted to it the likelihood of establishing a successful colony would have been much stronger. These colonists had everything in their favor. The Southern Railway Company took great interest in this settlement and rendered the settlers all the assistance they could consistently. The natives aided them when it was possible and the colony at first seemed to have a bright future, but the lack of a reliable leader and of agriculturists among the colonists seem to have been the principal causes of the untimely end of the venture.
LIST OF TEXT TABLES.
PART 1.-RECENT IMMIGRANTS IN AGRICULTURE-GENERAL SURVEY.
CHAPTER II.-Scope and method of investigation:
Page. Table 1. Scope of investigation...
10 Table 2. Households studied and number of persons for whom information was secured, by race of head of household...
13 CHAPTER III.-General sociological survey: Table 3. Persons for whom detailed information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race of individual....
17 Table 4. Per cent of persons within each age group, by sex and by general nativity and race of head of household..
18, 19 Table 5. Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.
19 Table 6. Number and per cent of heads of families who have been in locality
each specified number of years, by general nativity and race of indi-
20 Table 7. Per cent of persons in each conjugal condition, by sex and age
groups, and by general nativity and race of individual.
in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or
23 Table 9. Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign
born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of
23 Table 10. Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign
born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race
24 Table 11. Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born males who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual...
24 / Table 12. Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born
females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of
24 Table 13. Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak
English, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of indi-
25 Table 14. Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak
English, by years in the United States and race of individual. Table 15. Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual......
27 Table 16. Per cent of foreign-bom persons 10 years of age or over who read
and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual...
28 Table 17. Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent
who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual... 29 Table 18. Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read
and per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual..
30 Table 19. Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.. 30,31
PART II.-ITALIANS IN AGRICULTURE.
CHAPTER I.-General survey:
Page Table 1. White male breadwinners, first and second generation of Italians, United States and seven selected States, 1900.
35 Table 2. White male breadwinners having one or both parents born in Italy, census of 1900..
36, 37 Table 3. List of Italian rural communities in the United States investigated by the Immigration Commission, 1909...
38, 39 CHAPTER II.–Vineland, N. J.-North and South Italian truckers and fruit
growers: Table 4. Decline in wheat production in Cumberland and Atlantic Counties, 1870, 1880, and 1899..
49 Table 5. A census of the Italian families in Vineland and neighboring
towns in 1908.. Table 6. Italian North: Economic history and present financial condition of certain typical farm families..
54, 55 Table 7. Italian South: Economic history and present financial condition of certain typical farm families..
56.57 Table 8. Condition of land and size of farms first rented or purchased... Table 9. First purchase of land, condition, size of farms, and price paid... 59 Table 10. Vineland and vicinity: Size of typical Italian farms; number of
farms of specified acreages in Landis, Franklin, and Buena Vista Town.
duced and sold..
number of years since first lease or purchase.... Table 17. General financial summary..
Table 18. Beneficial societies, membership, value of property, etc. CHAPTER III.-Hammonton, N.J.-South Italian berry farmers:
Table 19. Condition in locality of heads of families before lease or purchase. 101 Table 20. Method of supplementing farm income of South Italians from
time of purchase until living could be made from land...
net value of property now owned, and number of years since first lease
105 Table 22. Temperature and rainfall at Atco and Vineland, N. J..
107 Table 23. Real estate in Hammonton Township, N.J., owned by Italians, distributed by size of holdings.
108 Table 24. Condition of land and size of farms now rented and owned by South Italians..
109 Table 25. Classification of farms of South Italians, by values of farm prod
ucts produced and sold. Table 26. Average quantity and value of crops raised by 50 South Italian farmers, Hammonton, N.J...
113 Table 27. Classification of live stock kept by South Italian farmers, Hammonton, N. J...
114 Table 28. Cooperative marketing societies in Hammonton, N. J. and vicinity.
118 Table 29. Valuations of Italian property as shown by the tax duplicate, 1908, Hammonton, N. J.....
120 Table 30. Estimated value of property now owned by 50 South Italians at Hammonton, N. J....
121 Table 31. Italians employed in certain typical industries, classified by
number and sex, 1909.. Table 32. Enrollment and attendance, public schools, Hammonton, N. J., 1908-9.
134 Table 33. Economic history and present financial condition of certain typical South Italian families, Hammonton, N. J..