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under 14 showing this ability, compared with 74.4 per cent of those 14 or over. Of those under 14 at time of coming, the Bohemian and Moravian, German, and Slovak races show 100 per cent each able to speak English, compared with slightly less than 90 per cent of the Lithuanians and Poles and 75.4 per cent of the North Italians. Of those 14 years of age or over at the time of coming, the Japanese rank first with 91.7 per cent speaking English, followed by the Germans with 87 per cent and the Hebrews with 83.4 per cent, while the Portuguese rank lowest in this group, only 53.1 per cent being able to speak English.

The table following shows the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by years in the United States and race of individual.

TABLE 14.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by years in the United States and race of individual.

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

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Increased ability to speak English as length of residence in the United States increases is clearly indicated in the above table. Of the 2,159 persons represented the largest proportion speaking English is exhibited by the group in the United States 10 years or over, with 81.9 per cent able to speak English, compared with 77.9 per cent of the persons in this country five to nine years, and 64.4 per cent of those here under five years. Of those in the United States under five years, the Germans with 100 per cent show the largest proportion speaking English, followed by the Japanese with 90.1 per cent, and the Hebrews with 76.4 per cent. The Japanese show the largest percentages speaking English in the second and third periods, followed in the second period by the Germans and the Slovaks, and in the third by the Hebrews and Germans. The Italians, Lithuanians, Poles, and Portuguese exhibit relatively small proportions speaking English in each period, the South Italians with 14.7 per cent ranking lowest in the period under five years, while the Portuguese show the smallest proportions, or 65.4 and 71.4 per cent, in the two following periods.

Some idea of the extent to which the rural immigrants have acquired a knowledge of the English language may be obtained from the table which follows, showing the per cent of persons 6 years of

age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 15.—Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Ninety-one and eight-tenths per cent of the 2,223 males and 80.5 per cent of the 1,843 females represented in the above table speak English. Ninety-six and four-tenths per cent of the total nativeborn of foreign father speak English, compared with 78 per cent of the foreign-born. One hundred per cent of the native-born of Bohemian and Moravian, German, and Hebrew descent speak English, compared with slightly lower percentages of the native-born of Italian parentage, and only 92.6 per cent of the native-born of Polish lineage. Each of the foreign-born races shows a larger percentage of males than of females able to speak English, the difference being the greatest in the case of the Japanese, Portuguese, and Lithuanians. Comparing the totals for the foreign-born the Japanese rank first in ability to speak English, followed by the Germans and Hebrews with slightly smaller percentages, the smallest proportion speaking English being shown by the Portuguese.

The table next presented shows the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and the per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

TABLE 16.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual. [This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The above table shows a greater degree of literacy in the case of persons under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States than is exhibited by those 14 years of age or over at the time of coming. Eighty and seven-tenths per cent of the persons under 14 at the time of coming to this country, compared with 73 per cent of those 14 or over, are able to read, and 76.3 per cent of those under 14 at the time of coming, compared with 69.7 per cent of those 14 or over, can read and write. The greatest degree of literacy is shown by the Japanese, who report 99.1 per cent able to read and write, followed by the Bohemians and Moravians with a slightly lower percentage, while the Portuguese show the greatest percentage of illiterates, the South Italians ranking next to the Portuguese in this regard. The table next submitted shows the per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and the per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

TABLE 17.-Per cent of persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cent who read and write, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

[This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Data are presented in the preceding table for 3,566 persons, including 1,970 males and 1,596 females, and of the total number 81.9 per cent are able to read and 79.3 per cent to read and write. Ninety-two per cent of the native-born of foreign father are able to read and 90.8 per cent to read and write, compared with 74.8 per cent of the foreign-born who read and 71.3 per cent who read and write. One hundred per cent of the native-born of German, Hebrew, and North Italian parentage and 98.3 per cent of the native-born of Bohemian and Moravian parentage read and write, compared with 88.4 per cent of the native-born of South Italian and 85.7 per cent of the native-born of Polish descent.

Comparing the foreign-born, it is seen that the Japanese show the greatest degree of literacy, followed by the Bohemians and Moravians, Germans, and Hebrews, each of which shows more than 90 per cent able to read and write. The Portuguese exhibit the largest percentage of illiterates, showing only 31.1 per cent who read and write. The percentages able to read and to read and write are slightly larger for the males than for the females, the greatest difference between the sexes being shown by the Portuguese, Lithuanian, Slovak, and South Italian races.

Further data on the literacy of immigrants engaged in agriculture are presented in the table following, which sets forth the per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and the per cent who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

TABLE 18.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 10 years of age or over who read and per cen! who read and write, by years in the United States and race of individual.

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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The Bohemians and Moravians exhibit the greatest degree of literacy in the preceding table and are closely followed by the Germans, each of these races showing 100 per cent of those in the United States under 10 years and more than 90 per cent of those here 10 years or over able to read and write. Of those here five to nine years, the greatest proportion of illiterates is shown by the Portuguese, with only 24 per cent who read and write. The percentage of illiterates is considerably larger among the Poles, Slovaks, and Lithuanians in the United States under five years than among those here five years or

over.

The table following shows the per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual:

TABLE 19.-Per cent of children 6 and under 16 years of age at home, at school, and at work, by sex and general nativity and race of individual.

[This table includes only races with 40 or more children reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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