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those of their fellow-countrymen, and in all instances the interests of the two races are closely allied. None of the settlers have intermarried with Americans and they mingle little with them socially, though they are thrown constantly together in work and business.

Canastota is well supplied with churches of various denominations, but Italian immigrants attend only the Roman Catholic Church. They show considerable religious interest, and during the winter months are regular attendants at the services. In the summer many being at some distance from town do not attend as regularly. The church encourages different societies which are the means of bringing the settlers closer together, and entertainments given by these societies are a part of the social life of the immigrants.

EDUCATIONAL CONDITIONS.

The schools in Canastota and the vicinity are good. Italians both in the country and the village attend well, their standing is good, and the teachers say that they progress as rapidly as other children. Of a total enrollment of 720 pupils in the school at Canastota 60 are Italians, 5 of whom are in the high school. They mingle freely with native children, play their games, and there is no friction between the races. The principal of the school insists that Italians send the children to school regularly and he has had good results. When he hears of a family that keeps its children at home, he reports the fact to one of the leading Italians of the town, a method which never fails to bring the desired result.

Canastota has a fine public library which, according to the librarian, is patronized by about 10 Italian families. The books are withdrawn by American born Italians, who read and translate to the older members of the family, who do not understand English well. It is further stated that they show much interest and during the winter months read constantly. The books preferred are works of fiction.

No immigrants have entered any of the professions, though several Italians have said that they were going to give their children all the advantages of a good education in order to prepare them for a professional career.

POLITICAL CONDITIONS. About one hundred immigrants in the settlement have filed second naturalization papers, while fully 50 have first papers. A well-known attorney of the town says the Italians of Canastota get their papers as soon as possible, and that he filed 38 in a single day. says that Italians show much civic interest and practically hold the balance of power in elections. Their vote is eagerly sought, and all of them show interest in all political questions. Îhe Italian vote, however, is largely influenced by several prominent men of the race and usually goes according to their dictation. An Italian politician has held the office of street commissioner for several years.

MORAL CONDITIONS.

The general opinion of the community is that Italians are honest. There have been no reports of larceny or of any petty crimes, and dealers who furnish supplies on credit say that most of them pay very promptly.

The mayor of Canastota says that the municipal government has no trouble with the immigrant population, and he regards the immigrants as peaceable, well-behaved citizens. He knows of no crimes of which they have been guilty. The settlers drink beer and wine freely, but few use intoxicating liquors to excess, and there is no more intoxication among the immigrants than among natives.

The general morality of the community is excellent, and all questioned on the subject declared that the people of the settlement maintained a high moral standard.

EFFECT OF SETTLEMENT ON NEIGHBORHOOD.

The effect of the Italian settlement on the neighborhood has been very marked. Many citizens expressed the opinion that it would have been impossible to develop the land to its present high state of cultivation had it not been for the immigrants, and that the farmers of the community could not dispense with the Italian farm laborer, it being impossible to secure enough American labor to supply the demand.

Italians have greatly increased the wealth of the neighborhood by their methods of cultivating the land and by the general excellence of the crops produced. Since the founding of the settlement, property values have steadily advanced.

No changes have been instituted in agricultural methods by settlers, and crops are produced in the same way as before their coming. It may be well, however, to compare the immigrant with the native in regard to the condition of the farms.

The Italians, as has been explained, do not keep any live stock or poultry, and hence can not be compared with natives in respect to marketing poultry and dairy products.

In regard to clearing, draining, and cultivating land, the methods of immigrants and natives are identical. The Italian is more careful in the preparation of the soil than the American, but does not use as good judgment in seeding and fertilizing. He is apt to sow too much or too little seed and thus injure the crop. The Italian takes better care of his machinery than the American, and dealers say that a machine which will last a native one season will last an Italian two or three.

Immigrants have introduced no diseases in the locality, and physicians say that the general health of the settlement has always been good. There is very little sickness among them.

The probable influence of the immigrants now in Canastota upon future immigration will be great. Those now settled in the community are well pleased and are making money. They are constantly urging friends to join them, both from other parts of the United States and from Europe. One Italian said that the farm work exactly suited his people, and he boped in a few years to see all the muck land owned by Italians.

The advent of immigrants has caused no population shift, as they have mostly occupied land which was never before farmed.

THE SECOND GENERATION.

The children of immigrants remain in the settlement and are either farming for themselves or are employed as farm laborers on their fathers' farms or those of neighboring farmers.

The second generation is more largely Americanized than the older immigrants, and has adopted American standards and customs.

They associate more with Americans than did their fathers, and many speak English better than Italian. One fact which is

One fact which is very noticeable is that they are not as thrifty as the older generation, and spend more for clothing and general living expenses.

It is stated that they are honest and law abiding.

STATISTICAL DATA FOR SELECTED FAMILIES.

The table following, which is compiled from data secured from 12 selected families, shows that 10 heads of families have resided in the locality six years or over, that i head has had a residence of four years and i has lived in the settlement one year. In all except three instances the family and the head of the family have been in the locality an equal length of time. Households range in size from 2 to 13 persons, and the proportion of males and females is the same for all persons 10 years of age or over. Only 2 households came to the locality direct from Italy, the others having formerly lived in other places in New York. The majority of heads of families were laborers before engaging in farming, and brought comparatively little money with them to the locality. Nine leased land before purchasing farms, all farming for one-half the crop. The table further shows that all the farms purchased were small, the largest containing only 20 acres, while prices paid ranged from $400 to $1,300, and only four farms were paid for in cash. Seven farms were uncleared, and 2 were only partly under cultivation. It will be observed that 4 farmers had to seek outside employment for one year after the first purchase until a living could be made from the land, and that no farmers have added to the size of their farms by subsequent purchases of land. It will also be noted that the present value of property owned is far in excess of the purchase price and that only 5 farmers have any indebtedness on land. The value of live stock and tools and implements is comparatively low, while the value of other property ranges from $60 to $1,600. Every Italian farmer produces onions, which are the principal crop of the locality, while the other crops shown in the table are grown in much smaller quantities. All crops produced were sold, the value per farm ranging from $394 to $1,858.

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Wages per week.
$7.50..

$9
Years employed.
2.

1.
First land leased:
Date....

1900.
1901.
1897.

1902. Number of acres.

2..
5..
5.

5. Terms.

On shares; On shares; On shares; On shares;

one-half of one-half of one-half of one-hall of
crop.
crop.
crop.

crop. Condition.....

Under cul- Paitly Under cul- Under cul

tivation. cleared. tivation. tivation. First land bought: Date.

1904.
1904..
1905.
1908.

1908. Number of acres

10..
4..
10..
5. .

5. Price.

$500.
$100.
$1,000. $600.

$600 Terms.

$250 cash, $200 cash, $500 cash, Borrowed $600 cash.
balance in balance on balance in

$600 to pay
2 years.
time.
5 years.

for land;
gave mort-

gage. Condition..... Uncleared... Uncleared... Uncleared... Uncleared... Partly un

der culti

tion. Occupation until living could be Laborer on Farm la- | Lived on Lived on made from land.

railroad. borer.

savings. savings. Number of years.

1.

1.. Earnings per day

$1.25.

$1.50. Acres of land now owned.

10.
4.
10.

5. Acres tillable..

9.
4.
10.

5.
Rented land:
Acres..

54 Terms.

Shares-one

half crops.
Live stock now owned:
Horses.

1.
1..

1.. Swine.

2.

4. Financial condition: Value of land and improve- $1,900. $600.

$1,800. $800.

$800.
ments.
Live stock

$18.
$122.
$115.

$10. Tools and implements. $75.

$125.
$75.
$40

$30 Other property.

$60.
$150.
$100.
$1,600.

$1,325 Gross value of all property. $2,053. $997.

$2,090. $2,440. $2,195 IndebtednessOn land.

$300.

$600. Other.. $175.

$200.

$16 Net value of all property. $1,878.

$997.
$1,590. $1,824.

$2,195.

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a Earnings of husband in shop.

1 Earnings of son.

condition of certain typical South Italian families, Canastota, N. Y.

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borer.

1.

1..
2..
5..
3...

2.. 1.

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6.
Naples, Italy Syracuse, Naples, Italy. Syracuse, Syracuse, Syracuse,
N. Y.

N. Y.
N. Y.

N. Y. Laborer in General la- Farmer General la Cigar maker.. Laborer on machine borer.

borer.

railroad. shop. $125. $450. $2,500... $100..

$400.

$700..
None..
Laborer in None.

None..
None.

Laborer on
factory.

railroad
and fac.

tory.
$8.70........

$75. Section

hand.

$1.25 to $2

per day. 4.

[blocks in formation]

1903.
6.
On shares;

one-hall of crop. Under culti

vation.

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784

581

460

394

550

1,113

a 273

680 c 201

6 228

c Earnings of husband.

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