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the New Jersey Handbook estimated 800 acres in raspberries in Hammonton. At present the acreage is considerably greater. Both this crop and blackberries need to be carefully trimmed each year in order to produce well, and a special fertilizer has been found advantageous. In both these respects the Italian had to wait upon the American for instruction. Some fine raspberries are raised by Italian farmers, but taken by and large the product is somewhat inferior both in quantity and quality to that raised by the better grade nonItalian farmer.

The Italian is a hard and persevering hand worker. The women and children do much of the hoeing and hand weeding and there are very few plots that are not clean and well tilled. Horse machinery, with the exception of a one-horse cultivator, is rarely employed to keep the ground well cultivated. This cultivator is kept going between the rows of berry bushes or grapevines from the early spring until picking season.

Every Italian farmer has a small vineyard, and many have several acres set to grapevines. They seem to have a faculty for raising grapes, and, although they were not the originators of the grape industry at Hammonton, they are responsible for making grape culture almost universal. The vines are planted in a deep trench, with a compost of fertilizer, manure, or leather scraps. The vines are not trained on trellises, but to stakes or posts, a method commonly adopted by all South Jersey growers. Frequently a row of vines is set out along the road or the boundary of an Italian's land. The next year a second row parallel to the first one is started by digging cross trenches and layering from the original row of vines. The third year a new row of vines is started in the same way, and before long a fair-sized vineyard is under way, at no cost to the owner for new vines after the first planting. The Italians raise very few grapes for sale. Of 50 farms investigated, but 4 had sold grapes by the ton within two years. One farmer sold 12 tons, the others averaged 1 tons each. There is a good market both for grapes and for grape wine, but the larger part of both is used for home consumption only. Thirty-seven farms report vineyards of greater or less extent, varying from one-half to 5 acres, with a mean area of 1 acres. Notwithstanding the fact that the grapevines produce well, and that most of the fruit is made into wine, only 7 of the 50 families report sales of wine. The average per farm sold annually is 15 barrels, bringing an average return of $293, or about $20 the barrel. The obvious fact made evident by the figures is that the greater part of the wine made is consumed at home. It is a sour wine, the pure juice of the grape, made by crushing the fruit grapes, stems, and all-in a barrel and draining off the juice. No sugar is added. This wine is used as a substitute for coffee or tea, and is drunk very freely by all classes of Italians, although some of the Italian Americans profess to dislike it. There is a good market for this homemade wine, and it would seem that something might be done to perfect the manufacture of it and to eliminate some unnecessary waste in gathering the grapes and making the wine. The California Italians have made their brands of wine famous, but no attempt has been made to advertise the Hammonton product. The wine sold is shipped to Philadelphia or New York to friends or Italian wine dealers. When grapes are sold they usually go to the Vineland Grape Juice Company; but although grapes are

more universally grown here than around Vineland, they have never become as much of a commercial crop. Both the Concord and Ives seedling are grown, but the latter is now generally discredited, because subject to rot and blight of various sorts.

Another commercial crop is sweet potatoes. Perhaps one-third of the larger Italian farmers raise from 20 to 200 bushels of them yearly per farm. They are of fair quality, and on the heavier soils yield very wel! f well fertilized. Of the farms studied the average quantity per farm produced is only 29 barrels yearly; the price received averaged about $3 a barrel for the previous two years. There are several reasons why the Italians have not gone into this crop more extensively. In the first place, berries had the advantage of a good start, and, as several Italians explained, it takes some time to grub out, plow up, and clear of heavy roots a field that has been in blackberries for a number of years. Not only is it difficult, but the first crops of sweet potatoes are not likely to be up to the average in quality or quantity. Then the ground is not all adapted to sweet potatoes. Much of it is very loose, coarse sand, with little clay or fine sand, and is too porous to retain any but immediately available fertilizers. The non-Italian farmers on some of the heavier oak lands can raise potatoes profitably. In the third place, more intelligence and more capital are required to raise potatoes than to grow berries for market. Tons of fertilizer, heavy machinery, storage facilities, and curing houses are needed if one is to raise sweet potatoes in any quantity with profit. Another objection frequently voiced by many who are even now debating the substitution of potatoes for berries, is that frequently the market price of potatoes is below the line of reasonable profit, and that in years of plenty sweet potatoes are produced at an absolute loss. Carefully analyzed, these reasons resolve themselves into the natural adaptability of the soil to other crops and the absence of the intelligence and capital required in sweet-potato culture. That berries are going out unless more brains are mingled with the labor required to produce and market them seems certain. It is possible that potatoes will some day become the leading crop.

Irish potatoes are seldom raised, either for sale or home consumption, by the Italians. A few Americans are raising them profitably, and the acreage of this crop is increasing among the non-Italians.

Few other field crops are raised. Hay for feeding a horse and perhaps a cow is cut wild from some lowland. Occasionally rye or oats are grown for forage, cut green, and cured like hay. Sometimes a crop of cowpeas is grown for hay, less often for green manuring. Corn is raised on perhaps one-fourth of the farms, an acre or so each, and cut for fodder. On the whole, the farmers find it cheaper to buy corn and oats or even hay than to raise these crops on their farms. Perhaps one-half of the Italian farmers have small peach, pear, or apple orchards. There are very few successful Italian orchardists in the Hammonton group, however. One of the Campanellas has a fine young peach and pear orchard of 35 acres or more. He has the largest Italian farm in the community and sells perhaps $1,000 worth of peaches, pears, and wine from his orchards and 20-acre vineyard yearly. His peaches hitherto have not done well. The blight, the San Jose scale, and other pests have discouraged the Italian and all but the best of the American growers. The capital necessary to plant

and get an orchard into bearing, the long period of waiting between planting and harvesting a crop, the continuous outlay without visible financial returns, the unequal fight which the inexperienced foreigner must wage with insect pests and diseases whose name is legion, the uselessness of spraying, pruning, and burning to destroy injurious insects in his own orchard when his neighbor across the line allows his trees to become infested, are some of the reasons why Italian orchards are bearing scarcely enough fruit for home use, and why so few young orchards are being set out. Patience, courage, intelligence, and resourcefulness are necessary to raise good peaches year after year. Few Italians have the requisite qualifications. Of the 50 families investigated, but 2 reported orchard fruit sold. Several with 25 to 100 peach and pear trees said they gathered less than enough for home consumption in normal years.

Of the cranberry crop, it suffices to say that almost no cranberry bogs are owned by Italians. A small bog is not often profitable, and a large one requires a capital investment of $500 to $800 per acre to put in bearing.

The tables below summarize the production of farm produce on 50 Italian farms of the medium and better class.

TABLE 25.-Classification of farms of South Italians, by values of farm products produced and sold.

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TABLE 26.—Average quantity and value of crop raised by 50 South Italian farmers, Hammonton, NÑ. J.

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The next table presents a showing of the live stock on the farms under consideration. It is evident that little milk and less beef is produced in the Italian section. It may be said that no poultry and poultry products are sold and very few fowls are kept. Most farmers have one good horse; some have two. The horses look well, as a rule, and are reasonably well treated. One hog, or, perhaps two, are raised for home use; none are marketed for pork. Not one-fifth of all the farm households keep a cow. There are no fences. Grass is a luxury in Hammonton, and the cost of keeping a cow over winter is high. Neither there nor at Vineland have the Italians been attracted to dairying, although they are fond of milk.

TABLE 27.----Classification of live stock kept by South Italian farmers, Hammonton, N. J.

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It remains to say a word about the Italian's garden. On a small plot of ground about the house he raises a large part of the yearly sustenance for himself and family. Many of these little gardens are models of neatness, good tillage, and productiveness. Peppers, beans, pease, onions, cabbage, and tomatoes are raised in considerable quantities; but sweet corn, potatoes, beets, carrots, parsnips, cucumbers, squash, and pumpkins, some or all, are found on nearly every farm. Italian beans, okra, and peppers are almost the only distinctive Italian vegetable introductions to the community. Peppers and beans are raised for market in large quantities at Vineland, but Hammonton growers have not begun to produce these crops commercially to any extent. The Italian's garden adds not a little to the family income. From spring until autumn a large part of the food of the family comes from this source, and in the winter the rafters are hung heavy with the fruits of it. Sweet potatoes and some early Irish potatoes are grown for food, and berries in season, peaches, pears, grapes, and wine help out the daily bill of fare. While it is not found in the tabulations, this exceedingly important fact must not be overlooked that aside from flour and macaroni the greater share of the family's food supply comes from their own land.

FERTILIZERS AND METHODS.

Barnyard manure seems never to have been a main reliance of Hammonton farmers. It is generally thought that the elements of plant food in a fertilizer leach through the porous soil very quickly and that only those fertilizers are of benefit in which the elements of fertility are immediately available. High grade phosphates and ready-mixed "complete" fertilizers from several standard fertilizer companies are used. Not many of the farmers make heavy applications to any crop, but all apply small quantities to every crop

yearly. To secure the best results, of course, the fertilizer best adapted to the crop should be applied in sufficient quantities at proper times. It is a matter of common observation that the average Italian does not seem able to exercise much discrimination, even after years of trial, in the buying of fertilizer. His economy or penuriousness does not allow him to apply ample quantities, and the time of application is determined more by habit and by observing his neighbors than by practical test or experiment. The fertilizer is bought from a local dealer, agents of the fertilizer companies who take orders early in the spring, or, occasionally, by the members from the Italian farmers' cooperative society which buys for a number of members at one time. This last is not the common practice. Most of the fertilizer is bought from agents of the fertilizer companies, who sell their fertilizer on credit, payable in July after the berry crop has been sold. With few exceptions the quantity of fertilizer used is insufficient; one, or at most two, bags (200 pounds each) of "complete" fertilizer is ordinarily applied to an acre of vines, berries, or sweet potatoes. This is applied broadcast by hand during the spring. There are some who buy heavily, but seem to exercise little judgment either in the selection or the application of fertilizer.

One of the most noticeable characteristics of the Italian's method of farming is his attempt to economize land and to utilize every inch of cleared ground for some usable crop. The garden plots are cultivated right up to the houses or outbuildings; the barnyards or back yards are very small and the space in front of the house is ornamented with grape vines and rows of vegetables instead of flowers, trees, grass, and ornamental shrubbery. The fields are cultivated close up to the boundary line of the highway or the neighbor's farm. No corners are given up to weeds, briars, and young bushes. Uncleared land is cleaned up as rapidly as possible, and all brush or roots are saved to burn in the stove or the little beehive ovens. Even the rank blackberry canes, trimmed out or cut down where a berry patch is broken up, are often used for firing these outdoor ovens. Nothing is wasted and nothing that seems to have any possible use is thrown away. Leaves, dried grass, and refuse of every sort is gathered up and saved for litter or for fuel.

Not nearly all of the men are really gardeners, nor can they be called intensive farmers. They work hard and persistently, but often their efforts are misdirected, certainly not directed by scientific knowledge. Old settlers say that their first attemps were blundering in the extreme. Not only were they ignorant of all but the simplest operations, but they lacked judgment, and were almost inexpressibly stupid when it came to the use of tools, implements, or horses. Although they have gained in technical skill, and can handle horses and simple machinery, they have very little scientific knowledge and do not yet know how to apply capital and labor most advantageously. With a few exceptions they are not carrying on an intensive system of agriculture.

BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS.

The general appearance of an Italian farmstead is usually more or less depressing, despite its rich surroundings of fruit. At its best it is a cluster of lodges in a vineyard, at worst a bare, unpainted frame

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