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Aside from the scientific value of a report of nationality, it appears that the members of some of the nationalities which are now largely represented in our population feel strongly opposed to a disregard of nationality in the census reports. The various Slavic nationalities coming from Austria-Hungary appear almost unanimously to object to being reported as born in Austria or Hungary, unless the additional information showing their nationality is presented, so that they will not be supposed to be Austrians or Hungarians. This strong feeling on the part of a large number of the population is likely to render it difficult for the enumerators to do their work, and may endanger the accuracy of the returns of these classes.

As far as ascertained by the Commission, the practice of classifying the foreign-born by race or people, rather than by country of birth, is acceptable to the people of such races in the United States with one exception. Indeed, as stated by Doctor Durand, many of them appear to prefer the racial classification to one of nativity, which is only natural, because as a rule they are, both here and in their native countries, more accustomed to the former.

The objection to the racial classification adopted by the Commission, referred to above, was specifically directed against the use of the word "Hebrew " or " Jewish " to designate a race. This objection was voiced by several prominent Hebrews, who contended that the Jews are not a distinct race in an ethnological sense, and that the terms "Hebrew" and "Jewish " rightly refer to a religious sect and not to a race. The alternative suggested was that Hebrews be classed according to the country in which they were born. At a hearing before the Commission December 4, 1909, Hon. Simon Wolf, of Washington, D. C., representing the executive committee of the board of delegates on civil rights of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, appeared in opposition to the use by the Commission of the word "Hebrew " in a racial sense. Hon. Julian W. Mack, of Chicago, also made a similar argument. Mr. Wolf's argument may be briefly summarized by quoting the following extract from his remarks:

The point we make is this: A Jew coming from Russia is a Russian; from Roumania, a Roumanian; from France, a Frenchman; from England, an EngJishman; and from Germany, a German; that Hebrew or Jewish is simply a religion.

Mr. Wolf explained, however, that the Jews are not a unit in denying a racial status, but that a certain portion of the Jewish people, especially the Zionists, claim that the Jews are a race.

Subsequent to the hearing above referred to the Commission received several communications from Hebrew organizations urging the continued use of the word "Jew" or "Hebrew" to designate a race or people, one of these petitions being in the form of a special resolution adopted by the federated Jewish organizations of one of the largest cities.

While appreciating the motive which actuated the protest against the designation of the Hebrews as a race or people, the Commission is convinced that such usage is entirely justified. Unfortunately, both the terms in question are used interchangeably to designate a religion as well as a race or people, but the Commission has employed

For report of hearing see Statements and Recommendations Submitted by Societies and Organizations Interested in the Subject of Immigration. Reports of the Immigration Commission, vol. 41. (S. Doc. No. 764, 61st Cong., 3d sess.)

them only in the latter sense in collecting and compiling data respecting immigrants of the various races. As a matter of fact, the terms 66 Jewish race" and "Hebrew race" are in common and constant use, even among Hebrews themselves. Many instances of this usage are to be found in the Jewish Encyclopedia, which, in fact, treats of the Jews as a race rather than a religious sect, as appears in the following quotation taken from the introduction to that work:

An even more delicate problem that presented itself at the very outset was the attitude to be observed by the encyclopedia in regard to those Jews who, while born within the Jewish community, have, for one reason or another, abandoned it. As the present work deals with Jews as a race, it was found impossible to exclude those who were of that race, whatever their religious affiliations may have been.

METHODS OF WORK.

By far the greater part of the Commission's work has consisted of the collection and compilation of data respecting recent immigrants in the United States. Something of the extent of the investigation is indicated by the fact that original information was secured for more than 3,200,000 individuals. This number, it will be understood, does not include data secured from existing records, but only such as were directly collected by agents of the Commission, a large number of whom were employed. The nature of the information secured will be clearly understood by reference to the appendix of this report which shows the schedules used in the various inquiries undertaken."

All of the field work of the Commission was carried on under the immediate supervision of committees or members of the Commission or the central office in Washington. This feature of the inquiry was practically concluded on July 1, 1909, and the compilation of data and preparation of reports required the employment of a large office force in Washington.

The result of the inquiry is contained in 42 volumes of varying size, and it is the hope and belief of the Commission that the intent of the Congress as expressed in section 39 of the immigration act of 1907 has been fully carried out.

A complete list of the Commission's reports is presented on the following page.

a See Vol. II, pp. 651-727.

REPORTS OF THE IMMIGRATION COMMISSION.

Abstracts of Reports of the Immigration Commission, with Conclusions and Recommendations and Views of the Minority.

Emigration Conditions in Europe.

Immigrants in Industries:

Bituminous Coal Mining.

Iron and Steel Manufacturing.

Cotton Goods Manufacturing in the North Atlantic States.

Woolen and Worsted Goods Manufacturing.

Silk Goods Manufacturing and Dyeing.

Clothing Manufacturing.

Collar, Čuff, and Shirt Manufacturing.

Leather Manufacturing.

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing.

Glove Manufacturing.

Slaughtering and Meat Packing.

Sugar Refining.

Glass Manufacturing.

Agricultural Implement and Vehicle Manufacturing.

Cigar and Tobacco Manufacturing.

Furniture Manufacturing.

Copper Mining and Smelting.

Iron Ore Mining.

Anthracite Coal Mining.

Oil refining.

Diversified Industries.

The Floating Immigrant Labor Supply.

Summary Report on Manufacturing and Mining.

Recent Immigrants in Agriculture.

Japanese and Other Immigrant Races in the Pacific Coast and Rocky Moun

tain States.

Immigrants in Cities.

The Children of Immigrants in Schools.

Immigrants as Charity Seekers.

Immigration and Crime.

Immigration and Insanity.

Immigrants in Charity Hospitals.

Steerage Conditions.

Immigrant Homes and Aid Societies.

Importation and Harboring of Women for Immoral Purposes.

Contract Labor and Induced and Assisted Immigration.

The Greek Padrone System in the United States.

Immigrant Banks.

Changes in Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants.

Statistical Review of Immigration to the United States, 1820-1910.

Distribution of Immigrants, 1850-1900.

Occupations of the First and Second Generations of Immigrants in the United States.

Fecundity of Immigrant Women.

Digest of Immigration Decisions.

Steerage Legislation, 1819-1908.

State Immigration and Alien Laws.

Dictionary of Races or Peoples.

The Immigration Situation in Other Countries: Canada-Australia-New ZealandArgentina-Brazil.

Immigration Conditions in Hawaii.

Alien Seamen and Stowaways.

Peonage.

Statements and Recommendations Submitted by Societies and Organizations Interested in the Subject of Immigration.

CONCLUSIONS.

While it has been no part of the work of the Commission to enforce the provisions of the immigration laws, it has been thought best to furnish from time to time to the proper authorities such information acquired in the course of the investigation as could further good administration and the enforcement of the law. City, state, and federal officials have officially recognized such assistance in their attempts to control the so-called "white slave traffic," in the proper regulation of the immigrant societies and homes, in securing evidence and penal certificates to accomplish the deportation of criminals, and in the administration of the Chinese-exclusion act. In some instances such information has led to local reorganization of the immigrant service. While mention is made of this matter the real work of the Commission has consisted in the collection and preparation of new material, largely statistical in nature, which might form a basis on which to frame legislation. A very condensed summary of the results on some of the principal questions investigated follows.

SOURCES OF IMMIGRATION AND CHARACTER OF IMMIGRANTS.

From 1820 to June 30, 1910, 27,918,992 immigrants were admitted to the United States. Of this number 92.3 per cent came from European countries, which countries are the source of about 93.7 per cent of the present immigration movement. From 1820 to 1883 more than 95 per cent of the total immigration from Europe originated in the United Kingdom, Germany, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Switzerland. In what follows the movement from these countries will be referred to as the "old immigration." Following 1883 there was a rapid change in the ethnical character of European immigration, and in recent years more than 70 per cent of the movement has originated in southern and eastern Europe. The change geographically, however, has been somewhat greater than the change in the racial character of the immigration, this being due very largely to the number of Germans who have come from Austria-Hungary and Russia. The movement from southern and eastern Europe will be referred to as the "new immigration." In a single generation Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Russia have succeeded the United Kingdom and Germany as the chief sources of immigration. In fact, each of the three countries first named furnished more immigrants to the United States in 1907 than came in the same year from the United Kingdom, Germany, Scandinavia, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Switzerland combined.

@ See p. 65.

b Including Turkey in Asia.

See pp. 61-63.

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