« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
This multi-million dollar operation must be what the doctor ordered because since it has been completed, three resident producers have moved in to use the sound stages and other facilities. And they've been joined by it variety of other film-oriented companies. One supplies overnight processing of 35-mm. color movie film, which previously had to be sent to Washington, D.C.—with long delays frequently involved. Another is a builder of movie sets, convention booth displays, and allied items.
Studio City's actual facilities so far consist of 30 acres of sound stages, processing laboratories, set-construction buildings, and commercial stages. The principal buildings erected house mammoth sound stages. Construction on the lot promises to continue, in view of the enthusiasm reported to be displayed by various companies for what many call an “ideal" film-processing location.
At the peak of the construction activity, Miami building-trades locals were called upon to supply 250 craftsmen to the job.
When Sam Segal, director of operations at Studio City, stated that the biggest of the sound stages had to be completed by a certain deadline, that's exactly what he got. E. T. "Whitey" Staley, construction superintendent, called the crews together and explained what had to be done; and they performed the almost incredible feat of erecting the sound stage in 40 working days—with the lot grassed and the signs up for a "grand opening” press party which the public joined to the number of about 5,000 people at one time, with 7,000 persons attending in all.
This building was built with two stages, each stage measuring 80x125x40 feet (with interiors obstruction-free) and each stage being a fully contained filming center on its own. The building also contains conference rooms, dressing rooms for the stars and the cast, rehearsal rooms, makeup rooms, screening rooms, and executive suites.
Stage No. 1 contains a swimming pool 18x18x4-ft. deep. Stage No. 2 has a dry pit 30x30x10-ft. deep, for use in certain scenes in movie-making.
All the floors in the building are laid on a 6-in. lat concrete slab, and the roof has 20-yr. bond insulation. All the building's walls are completely insulated to eliminate all extraneous noises while films are being shot. Incidentally, of course, this feature assists in cutting down the day-to-day cost of air-conditioning and/or heating.
Each stage was equipped with a 20x16-ft. rolling door, of a special soundproof construction. Such an opening is big enough to admit almost any kind of wheeled vehicle that could possibly be needed in shooting—or, also, giraffes and elephants, if necessary.
Future expansion needs were also considered prior to start of construction, and measures were taken so that the provision of new buildings for various purposes would be made easy. For example, the meter room on the big stage is all set up—with power lines in it available for instant tapping-so that power can be provided for surrounding buildings as they are built.
The soundproofing so far has been found to be eminently satisfactory, and future sound stages will follow the same plan along the same lines of construction. The stages' walls are lined with acoustical felt, three inches thick, covered by a furring of steel studs. This arrangement in turn is covered with 34-in. acoustical board, a 2-in.-thick high density fiberglass section, and a sounddeadening covering of muslin.
The floors are also designed to supply the absolute quiet needed when the cameras begin to roll. Set over the previously mentioned concrete floor slabs are (1) a cushion of 34-in. heavy-duty marine plywood, (2) a full one-inch of homosote board, and (3) 14-in.-thick masonite board. This kind of flooring not only supplies soundproofing, but also provides a surface to which securing sets can be easily done.
In addition to the sound-stage buildings, separate structures have been built on the lot for use by a variety of set designers, film processors, and other filmoriented firms.
Studio City is located on unusually high and dry ground for Florida, but no chances were taken with regard to drainage. Soakage pits have been built at strategic locations throughout the complex; and, visited after a heavy rain, the area showed no evidence of puddles or of poor drainage.
In contrast to the present multi-story, high-rise trend, especially in Miami apartment buildings, Studio City at the moment consists of buildings of not more than three stories—as is required for efficient operation in the movie business.
This, however, is only a temporary situation, for Studio City has new and larger buildings already on the drafting boards or beyond, which will cost an additional $6,000,000 to $10,000,000. These will include a 10-story hotel on the property, as well as a 800-seat theater.
In addition, four more stages each 85 by 125 feet-are planned; as well as a swimming pool with a glass wall; a tunnel for process work; animation, special effects, title, and optical departments; and complete dubbing, editing, and interlock screening facilities.
Among Miami's 22 other film producers and studios are some specializing in Spanish-language production, and dubbing English dialogue into Spanish, and Spanish into English. Since the large influx of Cuban refugees into Miami these studios have also grown materially and prospered.
WHAT THE VARIOUS BUILDING TRADES UNION ARE DOING IX TRAINING NEW MEX
FOR THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
The hammer, saw, chisel, a pocketful of nails are still the traditional tools of the carpenter. And, because these are essentially simple items of equipment, there's an opinion among the general public that practically anyone can do carpentry work.
But for today's journeyman member of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, there's a lot more to the trade than that. Granted that he still uses his basic tools, but he also uses many improvements on them. He must deal with new materials (some of which aren't wood at all); he must have more than a working knowledge of mathematics; a thorough understanding of blueprints; and must always give major consideration to safety, both his own and that of his fellow workers and of the structure which he builds.
Perhaps as important as any of these considerations is the fact that a carpenter must also be acquainted with the work of other craftsmen in other trades. His own craft is basic to the success of many of the others: formwork for the cement masons, temporary work platforms for bricklayers and other trades, and so on. In addition to this side knowledge, he must have a familiarity with the needs and objectives of everybody else concerned with the job: the architect, the engineer, the contractor, the owner, the user, and even of the general public acting as sidewalk superintendents.
That's why this largest of the building-trades crafts (in terms of membership) has long and enthusiastically supported its own four-year apprenticeship program, with money and knowhow from within its own ranks. Today, it is training more than 38.000 young men between the ages of 17 and 28. (The upper age limit was recently raised from 25, and can be extended to 32 for men who have been in military service.) At the same time, it is carrying on extensive refresher courses for its senior men.
Like some of its building-trades associates, the United Brotherhood believes in decentralization of its training programs, with emphasis on the judgment and management of local joint committees. But the Brotherhood insists on uniformity in what is being taught, and in the mandatory minimum of 144 hours of classroom work each year so that a journeyman will be fully qualified to work anywhere once he has received his certificate.
To this end, a relatively small staff in the Brotherhood's Washington, D.C., headquarters (four men) produces all of the textbooks and instructional material used by the more than 600 local committees. Seven field men work on detailed programs. The headquarters staff is backed by facilities that includes its own well-equipped printing shop; by close cooperation with manufacturers and producers who make details of their new developments available quickly (or on request ) ; with libraries and other sources.
On the local level, classrooms are usually supplied by local school authorities. The instructors, always journeymen themselves, are given additional training and are accredited by the school authorities as well as by the Brotherhood. Some of the instructors have become so successful as teachers that they have taken up the work as a full-time profession, personally keeping up with the new developments in their trade through jobsite work themselves during the summer months. THE MAYAN RUINS The Mayas were an important tribe and stock of American Indians—the dominant people in the greater parts of Central America known as Guatamala, Salvador; and especially the Yucatan Peninsula, which forms the south shore of the Gulf of Mexico, lying due west of Cuba. The Mayas had reached what might be called a "semi-civilized" state by the time Hernando Cortez and his band of Spanish soldiers arrived on the scene to conquer Mexico in the early 1500's.
Occupation of the Yucatan by the still-primitive Mayas early in the Christian era led to the final flowering of their architecture, stone carving, pottery, and the textile arts—in spite of their ignorance of iron, of the wheel (either for pottery or for hauling materials), and of the true arch. The Mayans left records in an elaborate hieroglyphic-type script, and were proficient in elementary astronomy through the use of a highly complicated calendar (which, incidentally, has yet to be correlated to modern-day chronology).
The stone buildings were roofed by a series of overlapping courses of slabs, converging toward the center until they could be united by a series of single slabs. A thick layer of solid masonry, and often a high roof "comb", was added on top to keep the false arch from collapsing. The arrangement, naturally, required thick walls to support the whole; and as a result the interior chambers were of seriously restricted width.
In the construction of their buildings, the Mayans used relatively small blocks of stone. The bonding between blocks and at the corners was not practiced, as the use of mortar had not been developed by their civilization. The rapid growth of tropical vegetation, thrusting its roots and tendrils between the unmortared blocks, is mainly responsible for the collapse of these structures.
The Mayan ruins, even when grouped together, are not believed to be remains of true "cities.” Because the most elementary of defense precautions and construction appear to have been completely neglected around these edifices, it is believed they were merely observatory and ceremonial centers, inhabited by the priests and their hierarchy, to which shrines the population at large came on predetermined dates to perform their religious rites.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPRENTICESHIP INFORMATION CENTER ACTIVITIES
In order to present a résumé of the accomplishments of the AIC's operations we have compiled selected data covering calendar year 1966.
A review of these data reveals that there has been a definite upsurge across the board. To illustrate this, accomplishments in selected activities for the calendar years 1964, 1965, and 1966, and the percent of change from 1965 to 1966 are shown in Table I.
TABLE I.-SUMMARY OF SELECTED ACTIVITIES FOR 9 CENTERS PRIOR TO 1966 ADDITIONS 1
1 Data available for the last 6 months of 1966 only.
1 Data available for the last 6 month of 1966 only.
Table II summarizes the same selected activity accomplishments in the fourteen Centers established during 1966.
TABLE II.-SUMMARY OF SELECTED ACTIVITIES FOR 14 CENTERS ESTABLISHED 1966 1
Table III is a composite of Table I and Table II, showing the total selected activity accomplishments for all Centers for the three year period.
TABLE III.-SUMMARY OF TOTAL SELECTED ACTIVITIES FOR ALL CENTERS, CALENDAR 1966
In order to establish, to the degree possible through the use of statistics, the effectiveness of the Centers, we compared the placement accomplishments of each of the nine Centers represented in Table I with the total number of apprentices indentured in the area, (obtained from BAT), served by the Center during 1966. This comparison, and the resulting percentage of participation by the Center in the area's apprenticeship market is illustrated in Table IV.
TABLE IV.-CENTER PARTICIPATION IN APPRENTICESHIP OPERATION—1966
The overall increase in the activity accomplishments of the Centers is very encouraging. Much work needs to be done, however, to assure that this trend is maintained, and improved in those Centers. Direction, leadership, guidance, and technical assistance must be provided those Centers that have been established during the year. Experience has proven that the first year of operation is usually marginal in accomplishment.
However, when we consider that the attitudes of the community are being modified by the presence and operation of the Center, the numbers of specific activities reflected by statistics is not of great importance.
We believe, and have maintained, that one of the major goals of the Centersopening apprentice opportunities to minority group applicants—is an intangible achievement which we have to date been unable to measure.
We are currently receiving racial data from only two Centers, Chicago, and Washington. Table V reveals the accomplishments of these two Centers in serving the minority community.
TABLE V.-SUMMARY OF SELECTED ACTIVITIES FOR WHICH MINORITY GROUP DATA IS AVAILABLE-CALENDAR
In Table VI we have illustrated the percent of placement participation in the Building and Construction Apprenticeship Field, and the Industrial Field. These data are taken from the AIC monthly activity reports for the last six months of 1966, the period of time for which these data were reported.
From the statistical accomplishments shown in this report we can look with pride on the progress the Apprenticeship Information Centers are making. However, we agree that it is now necessary that an effort should be made to actively promote a more significant national office directed improvement of the AIC operation and effectiveness.
From these data we find that overall the service provided Building and Construction and Industrial Apprenticeship Sponsors is about evenly divided. However, we recognize that in some specific Centers emphasis is given to one or the other segments. This we feel can be balanced through the provisions of technical assistance, guidance, and leadership by national office staff.
To determine the racial mix of the Centers, in addition to those in Table VChicago and Washington, we secured, through the Regional Offices, the State agencies best estimate. As a result of this cursory survey, we find that the percent of minority applicants of the total number of applicants receiving service from each Center is estimated to be as follows: