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(2) "enterprise" includes any partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity, which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect,
interstate or foreign commerce. (Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, $ 1002(a), Oct. 12. 1984, 98 Stat. 2137, $ 1952B; renumbered $1959, Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, $ 7053(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4402.)
(1) "anything of pecuniary value” means anything of value in the form of money, a ne gotiable instrument, a commercial interest, or anything else the primary significance of which is economic advantage; and
(2) "facility of interstate commerce" includes means of transportation and communi
cation. (Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, $ 1002(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136, § 1952A; renumbered $ 1958 and amended Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, $$ 7053(a), 7058(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4402, 4403.)
REFERENCES IN TEXT Section 1952B, referred to in subsec. (b), was renumbered section 1959 of this title by Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, $ 7053(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4402.
AMENDMENTS 1988–Pub. L. 100-690, $ 7053(a), renumbered section 1952A of this title as this section.
Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100-690, $ 7058(b), substituted "ten years" for "five years".
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 1961, 2516 of this title. 8 1959. Violent crimes in aid of racketeering activity
(a) Whoever, as consideration for the receipt of, or as consideration for a promise or agreement to pay, anything of pecuniary value from an enterprise engaged in racketeering activity, or for the purpose of gaining entrance to or maintaining or increasing position in an enterprise engaged in racketeering activity, murders, kidnaps, maims, assaults with a dangerous weapon, commits assault resulting in serious bodily injury upon, or threatens to commit a crime of violence against any individual in violation of the laws of any State or the United States, or attempts or conspires so to do, shall be punished
(1) for murder or kidnaping, by imprisonment for any term of years or for life or a fine of not more than $50,000, or both;
(2) for maiming, by imprisonment for not more than thirty years or a fine of not more than $30,000, or both;
(3) for assault with a dangerous weapon or assault resulting in serious bodily injury, by imprisonment for not more than twenty years or a fine of not more than $20,000, or both;
(4) for threatening to commit a crime of violence, by imprisonment for not more than five years or a fine of not more than $5,000, or both;
(5) for attempting or conspiring to commit murder or kidnaping, by imprisonment for not more than ten years or a fine of not more than $10,000, or both; and
(6) for attempting or conspiring to commit a crime involving maiming, assault with a dangerous weapon, or assault resulting in serious bodily injury, by imprisonment for not more than three years or a fine of not more than $3,000, or both. (b) As used in this section
(1) “racketeering activity" has the meaning set forth in section 1961 of this title; and
AMENDMENTS 1970–Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, $ 901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 941, added chapter 96 and items 1961 to 1968.
CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This chapter is referred to in section 3582 of this title; title 7 section 12a; title 28 section 524.
8 1961. Definitions
(1) "racketeering activity" means (A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnaping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in narcotic or other dangerous drugs, which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year; (B) any act which is indictable under any of the following provisions of title 18, United States Code: Section 201 (relating to bribery), section 224 (relating to sports bribery), sections 471, 472, and 473 (relating to counterfeiting), section 659 (relating to theft from interstate shipment) if the act indictable under section 659 is felonious, section 664 (relating to embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), sections 891-894 (relating to extortionate credit transactions), section 1029 (relative a to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section 1084 (relating to the transmission of gambling information), section 1341 (relating to mail fraud), section 1343 (relating to wire fraud), sections 1461-1465 (relating to obscene matter), section 1503 (relating to obstruction of justice), section 1510 (relating to obstruction of criminal investiga
So in original. Does not conform to section catchline. 2 So in original. Probably should be "relating".
(6) "unlawful debt" means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate;
(7) "racketeering investigator" means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chap
tions), section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1512 (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1951 (relating to interference with commerce, robbery, or extortion), section 1952 (relating to racketeering), section 1953 (relating to interstate transportation of wagering paraphernalia), section 1954 (relating to unlawful welfare fund payments), section 1955 (relating to the prohibition of illegal gambling businesses), section 1956 (relating to the laundering of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity) 3 sections 2251 through 2252 + (relating to sexual exploitation of children),,5 section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-forhire), sections 2251-2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children), sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles), sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen property), section 2321 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts), sections 2341-2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes), sections 2421-24 (relating to white slave traffic), (C) any act which is indictable under title 29, United States Code, section 186 (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to labor organizations) or section 501(c) (relating to embezzlement from union funds), (D) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title 11, fraud in the sale of securities, or the felonious manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic or other dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States, or (E) any act which is indictable under the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act.
(2) “State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof;
(3) "person" includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property;
(4) “enterprise" includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity;
(5) "pattern of racketeering activity” requires at least two acts of racketeering activi. ty, one of which occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of which occurred within ten years (excluding any period of imprisonment) after the commission of a prior act of racketeering activity;
(8) "racketeering investigation" means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter;
(9) "documentary material” includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material; and
(10) “Attorney General” includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. Any department or agency so designated may use in investigations authorized by this chapter either the investigative provisions of this chapter or the investigative power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law. (Added Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, $ 901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 941, and amended Pub. L. 95-575, § 3(c), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2465; Pub. L. 95-598, title III. $ 314(g), Nov. 6. 1978, 92 Stat. 2677; Pub. L. 98-473, title II, 88 901(g), 1020, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136, 2143; Pub. L. 98-547, title II, § 205, Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2770; Pub. L. 99-570, title I, § 1365(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-35; Pub. L. 99-646, $ 50(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605; Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, 88 7013, 7020(c), 7032, 7054, 7514, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395, 4396, 4398, 4402, 4489.)
REFERENCES IN TEXT The Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, referred to in par. (1)(E), is title II of Pub. L. 91-508, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118, which was repealed and reenacted as subchapter II of chapter 53 of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97-258, $ 4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31.
The effective date of this chapter, referred to in par. (5), is Oct. 15, 1970.
* So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
• Reference to sections 2251 through 2252 duplicates a similar reference following the reference to section 1958. See 1988 Amendment note below.
So in original.
AMENDMENTS 1988-Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 100-690, $7514, inserted "sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children),".
Pub. L. 100-690, $ 7054, inserted “, section 1029 (relative to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices)" and ", section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire), sections 2251-2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children)”.
Pub. L, 100-690, $ 7032, substituted "section 2321" for "section 2320".
Pub. L. 100-690, $ 7013, made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 99-646. See 1986 Amendment note below.
Par. (10). Pub. L, 100-690, $ 7020(c), inserted “the Associate Attorney General of the United States," after “Deputy Attorney General of the United States,".
1986—Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 99-646, as amended by Pub. L. 100-690, $ 7013, inserted "section 1512 (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant)," after “section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law enforcement),”.
Pub. L. 99-570 inserted "section 1956 (relating to the laundering of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity),”.
1984–Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 98-473, § 1020(1), inserted "dealing in obscene matter," after "extortion,".
Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 98-547 inserted "sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles),” and “section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts),".
Pub. L. 98-473, $1020(2), inserted "sections 1461-1465 (relating to obscene matter),". Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 98-473, § 901(g), inserted cl. (E).
1978–Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 95-575 inserted “sections 2341-2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes),”.
Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 95-598 substituted "fraud connected with a case under title 11" for "bankruptcy fraud".
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENTS Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
Amendment by Pub. L. 95-575 effective Nov. 2, 1978, see section 4 of Pub. L. 95-575, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2341 of this title.
SHORT TITLE OF 1984 AMENDMENT Section 301 of chapter III ($8 301-322) of title II of Pub. L. 98-473 provided that: “This title (probably means this chapter, which enacted sections 1589, 1600, 1613a, and 1616 of Title 19, Customs Duties and sections 853, 854, and 970 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, amended section 1963 of this title and sections 1602, 1605, 1606, 1607, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1615, 1618, 1619, and 1644 of Title 19, sections 824, 848, and 881 of Title 21, and section 524 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and repealed section 7607 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code) may be cited as the 'Comprehensive Forfeiture Act of 1984'."
SHORT TITLE Section 1 of Pub. L. 91-452 provided in part: “That this Act (enacting sections 841 to 848, 1511, 1623, 1955, 1961 to 1968, 3331 to 3334, 3503, 3504, 3575 to 3578, and 6001 to 6005 of this title, and section 1826 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 835, 1073, 1505, 1954, 2424, 2516, 2517, 3148, 3486, and 3500 of this title, sections 15, 87f, 1350, 499m, and 2115 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 25 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, section 1820 of Title 12, Banks and Bank
ing, sections 49, 77v, 78u, 79r, 80a-41, 80b-9, 155, 717m, 1271, and 1714 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 825f of Title 16, Conservation, section 1333 of Title 19, Customs Duties, section 373 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, section 161 of Title 29, Labor, section 506 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, sections 405 and 2201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Wel. fare, sections 157 and 362 of Title 45, Railroads, section 1124 of former Title 46, Shipping, section 409 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radio telegraphs, sections 9, 43, 46, 916, and 1017, of former Title 49, Transportation, and section 1484 of Title 49, Appendix, section 792 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and sections 643a, 1152, 2026, and former section 2155 of Title 50, Appendix, repealing sections 837, 895, 1406, and 2514 of this title, sections 32 and 33 of Title 15; sections 4874 and 7493 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 827 of former Title 46, sections 47 and 48 of former Title 49, and sections 121 to 144 of Title 50, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 841, 1511, 1955, preceding 3331, preceding 3481, 3504, and 6001 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2510 of this title) may be cited as the 'Organized Crime Control Act of 1970'."
SAVINGS PROVISION Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L, 95-598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§ 151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§ 1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS Section 1301 of Pub. L. 91-452 provided that: “If the provisions of any part of this Act (see Short Title note set out above) or the application thereof to any person or circumstances be held invalid, the provisions of the other parts and their application to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby."
CONGRESSIONAL STATEMENT OF FINDINGS AND PURPOSE Section 1 of Pub. L. 91-452 provided in part that:
“The Congress finds that (1) organized crime in the United States is a highly sophisticated, diversified, and widespread activity that annually drains billions of dollars from America's economy by unlawful conduct and the illegal use of force, fraud, and corruption; (2) organized crime derives a major portion of its power through money obtained from such illegal endeavors as syndicated gambling, loan sharking, the theft and fencing of property, the importation and distribution of narcotics and other dangerous drugs, and other forms of social exploitation; (3) this money and power are increasingly used to infiltrate and corrupt legitimate business and labor unions and to subvert and corrupt our democratic processes; (4) organized crime activities in the United States weaken the stability of the Nation's economic system, harm innocent investors and competing organizations, interfere with free competition, seriously burden interstate and foreign commerce, threaten the domestic security, and undermine the general welfare of the Nation and its citizens; and (5) organized crime continues to grow because of defects in the evidence-gathering process of the law inhibiting the development of the legally admissible evidence necessary to bring criminal and other sanctions or remedies to bear on the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime and because the sanctions and remedies available to the Government are unnecessarily limited in scope and impact.
“It is the purpose of this Act (see Short Title note above) to seek the eradication of organized crime in
the United States by strengthening the legal tools in the evidence-gathering process, by establishing new penal prohibitions, and by providing enhanced sanctions and new remedies to deal with the unlawful activities of those engaged in organized crime." LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION OF PROVISIONS; SUPERSEDURE OF FEDERAL OR STATE LAWS; AUTHORITY OF ATTOR NEYS REPRESENTING UNITED STATES
Section 904 of title IX of Pub. L. 91-452 provided that:
“(a) The provisions of this title (enacting this chapter and amending sections 1505, 2516, and 2517 of this title) shall be liberally construed to effectuate its remedial purposes.
"(b) Nothing in this title shall supersede any provision of Federal, State, or other law imposing criminal penalties or affording civil remedies in addition to those provided for in this title.
"(c) Nothing contained in this title shall impair the authority of any attorney representing the United States to
"(1) lay before any grand jury impaneled by any district court of the United States any evidence concerning any alleged racketeering violation of law;
"(2) invoke the power of any such court to compel the production of any evidence before any such grand jury; or
"(3) institute any proceeding to enforce any order or process issued in execution of such power or to punish disobedience of any such order or process by any person.”
the intention of controlling or participating in the control of the issuer, or of assisting another to do so. shall not be unlawful under this subsection if the securities of the issuer held by the purchaser, the members of his immediate family, and his or their accomplices in any pattern or racketeering activity or the collection of an unlawful debt after such purchase do not amount in the aggregate to one percent of the outstanding securities of any one class, and do not confer, either in law or in fact, the power to elect one or more directors of the issuer.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any person through a pattern of racketeering activity or through collection of an unlawful debt to acquire or maintain, directly or indirectly, any interest in or control of any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce.
(c) It shall be unlawful for any person employed by or associated with any enterprise engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce, to conduct or participate, directly or indirectly, in the conduct of such enterprise's affairs through a pattern of racketeering activity or collection of unlawful debt.
(d) It shall be unlawful for any person to conspire to violate any of the provisions of subsection (a), (b), or (c) of this section. (Added Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, $ 901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 942, and amended Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, § 7033, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4398.)
AMENDMENTS 1988–Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100-690 substituted “subsection” for “subsections".
PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON ORGANIZED CRIME; TAKING OF TESTIMONY AND RECEIPT OF EVIDENCE Pub. L. 98-368, July 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 490, provided for the Commission established by Ex. Ord. No. 12435, formerly set out below, authority relating to taking of testimony, receipt of evidence, subpoena power, testimony of persons in custody, immunity, service of process, witness fees, access to other records and information, Federal protection for members and staff, closure of meetings, rules, and procedures, for the period of July 17, 1984, until the earlier of 2 years or the expira. tion of the Commission.
EXECUTIVE ORDER No. 12435 Ex. Ord. No. 12435, July 28, 1983, 48 F.R. 34723, as amended Ex. Ord. No. 12507, Mar. 22, 1985, 50 F.R. 11835, which established and provided for the administration of the President's Commission on Organized Crime. was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12610. Sept. 30. 1987, 52 F.R. 36901, set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 1963, 1964, 3554 of this title.
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 924, 1956, 1959 of this title.
8 1962. Prohibited activities
(a) It shall be unlawful for any person who has received any income derived, directly or indirectly, from a pattern of racketeering activity or through collection of an unlawful debt in which such person has participated as a principal within the meaning of section 2, title 18, United States Code, to use or invest, directly or indirectly, any part of such income, or the proceeds of such income, in acquisition of any interest in, or the establishment or operation of, any enterprise which is engaged in, or the activities of which affect, interstate or foreign commerce. A purchase of securities on the open market for purposes of investment, and without
8 1963. Criminal penalties
(a) Whoever violates any provision of section 1962 of this chapter shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years (or for life if the violation is based on a racketeering activity for which the maximum penalty includes life imprisonment), or both.,and shall forfeit to the United States, irrespective of any provision of State law
(1) any interest the person has acquired or maintained in violation of section 1962; (2) any
(A) interest in;
(D) property or contractual right of any kind affording a source of influence over; any enterprise which the person has established, operated, controlled, conducted, or participated in the conduct of, in violation of section 1962; and
(3) any property constituting, or derived from, any proceeds which the person obtained, directly or indirectly, from racketeer
So in original.
ing activity or unlawful debt collection in vio
lation of section 1962. The court, in imposing sentence on such person shall order, in addition to any other sentence imposed pursuant to this section, that the person forfeit to the United States all property described in this subsection. In lieu of a fine otherwise authorized by this section, a defendant who derives profits or other proceeds from an offense may be fined not more than twice the gross profits or other proceeds.
(b) Property subject to criminal forfeiture under this section includes
(1) real property, including things growing on, affixed to, and found in land; and
(2) tangible and intangible personal property, including rights, privileges, interests, claims, and securities.
(c) All right, title, and interest in property described in subsection (a) vests in the United States upon the commission of the act giving rise to forfeiture under this section. Any such property that is subsequently transferred to a person other than the defendant may be the subject of a special verdict of forfeiture and thereafter shall be ordered forfeited to the United States, unless the transferee establishes in a hearing pursuant to subsection (1) that he is a bona fide purchaser for value of such property who at the time of purchase was reasonably without cause to believe that the property was subject to forfeiture under this section.
(d)(1) Upon application of the United States, the court may enter a restraining order or injunction, require the execution of a satisfactory performance bond, or take any other action to preserve the availability of property described in subsection (a) for forfeiture under this section,
(A) upon the filing of an indictment or information charging a violation of section 1962 of this chapter and alleging that the property with respect to which the order is sought would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture under this section; or
(B) prior to the filing of such an indictment or information, if, after notice to persons appearing to have an interest in the property and opportunity for a hearing, the court determines that,
(i) there is a substantial probability that the United States will prevail on the issue of forfeiture and that failure to enter the order will result in the property being destroyed, removed from the jurisdiction of the court, or otherwise made unavailable for forfeiture; and
(ii) the need to preserve the availability of the property through the entry of the requested order outweighs the hardship on any party against whom the order is to be
entered: Provided, however, That an order entered pursuant to subparagraph (B) shall be effective for not more than ninety days, unless extended by the court for good cause shown or unless an indictment or information described in subparagraph (A) has been filed.
(2) A temporary restraining order under this subsection may be entered upon application of
the United States without notice or opportunity for a hearing when an information or indictment has not yet been filed with respect to the property, if the United States demonstrates that there is probable cause to believe that the property with respect to which the order is sought would, in the event of conviction, be subject to forfeiture under this section and that provision of notice will jeopardize the availability of the property for forfeiture. Such a temporary order shall expire not more than ten days after the date on which it is entered, unless extended for good cause shown or unless the party against whom it is entered consents to an extension for a longer period. A hearing requested concerning an order entered under this paragraph shall be held at the earliest possible time, and prior to the expiration of the temporary order.
(3) The court may receive and consider, at a hearing held pursuant to this subsection, evidence and information that would be inadmissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence.
(e) Upon conviction of a person under this section, the court shall enter a judgment of forfeiture of the property to the United States and shall also authorize the Attorney General to seize all property ordered forfeited upon such terms and conditions as the court shall deem proper. Following the entry of an order declaring the property forfeited, the court may, upon application of the United States, enter such appropriate restraining orders or injunctions, require the execution of satisfactory performance bonds, appoint receivers, conservators, appraisers, accountants, or trustees, or take any other action to protect the interest of the United States in the property ordered forfeited. Any income accruing to, or derived from, an enterprise or an interest in an enterprise which has been ordered forfeited under this section may be used to offset ordinary and necessary expenses to the enterprise which are required by law, or which are necessary to protect the interests of the United States or third parties.
(f) Following the seizure of property ordered forfeited under this section, the Attorney General shall direct the disposition of the property by sale or any other commercially feasible means, making due provision for the rights of any innocent persons. Any property right or interest not exercisable by, or transferable for value to, the United States shall expire and shall not revert to the defendant, nor shall the defendant or any person acting in concert with or on behalf of the defendant be eligible to purchase forfeited property at any sale held by the United States. Upon application of a person, other than the defendant or a person acting in concert with or on behalf of the defendant, the court may restrain or stay the sale or disposition of the property pending the conclusion of any appeal of the criminal case giving rise to the forfeiture, if the applicant demonstrates that proceeding with the sale or disposition of the property will result in irreparable injury, harm or loss to him. Notwithstanding 31 U.S.C. 3302(b), the proceeds of any sale or other disposition of property forfeited under this section and any moneys forfeited shall be used to pay