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This title was enacted by act July 30, 1947, ch. 391, 61 Stat. 652, and was revised in its entin
Pub. L. 94-553, title I, § 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2541
Subject Matter and Scope of Copy
right Copyright Ownership and Transfer....... Duration of Copyright..... Copyright Notice, Deposit, and Regis
tration............ Copyright Infringement and Remedies. Manufacturing Requirement and Im
portation ..... Copyright Office Copyright Royalty Tribunal. Protection of semiconductor chip
39. 40. 41. 42 43. 44. 45. 46.
7. 8. 9.
601 701 801
29 30 31 32 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 26 6 6 25
AMENDMENTS 1984-Pub. L. 98-620, title III, $ 303, Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3356, added item relating to chapter 9.
This Table lists the sections of former Title 17, Copy
rights, and indicates the sections of Title 17, as enacted in 1947, which covered similar and related subject matter.
Title 17 Former Sections
Title 17 1947 Revision Sections
1 2.. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8 9 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25 26. 27. 28. 29 30 31. 32.. 33. 34. 35 36. 37 38.
48. 49 50. 51. 52.. 53. 54. 55 56. 57. 58. 59. 60 61. 62. 63 64. 65
This Table lists the sections of former Title 17.
rights, and indicates the sections of Title
So in original. Does not conform to chapter heading.
Title 17 1947 Revision Sections
Title 17 New Sections
104. 105. 106. 107 108. 109. 110. 111 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 201. 202. 203 204. 205
110, 506 506 602 602 603 603 Rep. See T. 28 $ 1338 Rep. See T. 28 $ 1400 502 502 502 507 505 701(a) 701(a) 708(c) Rep. 701(c) 701(b) 702 705 407, 410 707 707 705 704 704 708(a), (b) 703
dramatic musical work copyrighted before July 1, 1909."
CROSS REFERENCES Exclusive jurisdiction of Federal courts over actions and proceedings under copyright laws, see section 1338 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Power of the Congress to regulate copyrights, see Const., Art. I, § 8, cl. 8.
TITLE REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This title is referred to in title 11 section 101; title 18 section 2319; title 19 section 1337; title 20 section 1125a; title 26 section 543; title 47 sections 542, 544, 605.
CHAPTER 1-SUBJECT MATTER AND SCOPE OF
207. 208 209 210 211 212 213. 214. 215. 216.
and derivative works.
tion by libraries and archives.
transfer of particular copy or phonorecord. Limitations on exclusive rights: Exemption
of certain performances and displays. Limitations on exclusive rights: Secondary
transmissions. Limitations on exclusive rights: Ephemeral
recordings. Scope of exclusive rights in pictorial, graph
ic, and sculptural works. Scope of exclusive rights in sound record
ings. Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic mu
sical works: Compulsory license for making
and distributing phonorecords. Scope of exclusive rights in nondramatic mu
sical works: Compulsory licenses for public performances by means of coin-operated
phonorecord players. Negotiated licenses for public performances
by means of coin-operated phonorecord
players. Scope of exclusive rights: Use in conjunction
with computers and similar information
systems." Scope of exclusive rights: Use of certain
works in connection with noncommercial
broadcasting. Limitations on exclusive rights: Secondary
transmissions of superstations and network stations for private home viewing.
EFFECTIVE DATE Section 102 of Pub. L. 94-553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2598, provided that: “This Act (enacting this title and section 170 of Title 2, The Congress, amending section 131 of Title 2, section 290e of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 2318 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 543 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 1498 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, sections 3203 and 3206 of Title 39, Postal Service, and sections 505 and 2117 of Title 44, Public Printing and Documents, and enacting provisions set out as notes below and under sections 104, 115, 304, 401, 407, 410, and 501 of this title) becomes effective on January 1, 1978, except as otherwise expressly provided by this Act, including provisions of the first section of this Act. The provisions of sections 118, 304(b), and chapter 8 of title 17, as amended by the first section of this Act, take effect upon enactment of this Act (Oct. 19, 1976)."
SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS Section 115 of Pub. L. 94-553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2602, provided that: “If any provision of title 17 (this title), as amended by the first section of this Act, is declared unconstitutional, the validity of the remainder of this title is not affected."
AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS Section 114 of Pub. L. 94-553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2602, provided that: “There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such funds as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act (this title]."
LOST AND EXPIRED COPYRIGHTS; RECORDING RIGHTS
Section 103 of Pub. L. 94-553, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2599, provided that: “This Act (enacting this title] does not provide copyright protection for any work that goes into the public domain before January 1, 1978. The exclusive rights, as provided by section 106 of title 17 as amended by the first section of this Act, to reproduce a work in phonorecords and to distribute phonorecords of the work, do not extend to any non
AMENDMENTS 1988–Pub. L. 100-667, title II, § 202(6), Nov. 16, 1988, 102 Stat. 3958, added item 119.
Pub. L. 100-568, § 4(b)(2), Oct. 31, 1988, 102 Stat. 2957, substituted "Compulsory licenses for public performances” for “Public performances" in item 116 and added item 116A.
CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.
8 101. Definitions
As used in this title, the following terms and their variant forms mean the following:
An "anonymous work" is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which no natural person is identified as author.
"Audiovisual works" are works that consist of a series of related images which are intrinsically intended to be shown by the use of machines, or devices such as projectors, viewers, or electronic equipment, together with accompanying sounds, if any, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as films or tapes, in which the works are embodied.
The “Berne Convention" is the Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, signed at Berne, Switzerland, on September 9, 1886, and all acts, protocols, and revisions thereto. A work is a "Berne Convention work" if
(1) in the case of an unpublished work, one or more of the authors is a national of a nation adhering to the Berne Convention, or in the case of a published work, one or more of the authors is a national of a nation adhering to the Berne Convention on the date of first publication;
(2) the work was first published in a nation adhering to the Berne Convention, or was simultaneously first published in a nation adhering to the Berne Convention and in a foreign nation that does not adhere to the Berne Convention; (3) in the case of an audiovisual work
(A) if one or more of the authors is a legal entity, that author has its headquarters in a nation adhering to the Berne Convention; or
(B) if one or more of the authors is an individual, that author is domiciled, or has his or her habitual residence in, a nation adhering to the Berne Convention; or
(4) in the case of a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work that is incorporated in a building or other structure, the building or structure is located in a nation adhering to
the Berne Convention. For purposes of paragraph (1), an author who is domiciled in or has his or her habitual residence in, a nation adhering to the Berne Convention is considered to be a national of that nation. For purposes of paragraph (2), a work is considered to have been simultaneously published in two or more nations if its dates of publication are within 30 days of one another.
The "best edition" of a work is the edition, published in the United States at any time before the date of deposit, that the Library of Congress determines to be most suitable for its purposes.
A person's "children" are that person's immediate offspring, whether legitimate or not, and any children legally adopted by that person.
A "collective work” is a work, such as a periodical issue, anthology, or encyclopedia, in which a number of contributions, constituting separate and independent works in themselves, are assembled into a collective whole.
A “compilation" is a work formed by the collection and assembling of preexisting materials or of data that are selected, coordinated, or arranged in such a way that the resulting work as a whole constitutes an original work of authorship. The term "compilation" includes collective works.
“Copies" are material objects, other than phonorecords, in which a work is fixed by any method now known or later developed, and from which the work can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. The term "copies" includes the material object, other than a phonorecord, in which the work is first fixed.
"Copyright owner”, with respect to any one of the exclusive rights comprised in a copy. right, refers to the owner of that particular right.
The "country of origin” of a Berne Convention work, for purposes of section 411, is the United States if
(1) in the case of a published work, the work is first published
(A) in the United States;
(B) simultaneously in the United States and another nation or nations adhering to the Berne Convention, whose law grants a term of copyright protection that is the same as or longer than the term provided in the United States;
(C) simultaneously in the United States and a foreign nation that does not adhere to the Berne Convention; or
(D) in a foreign nation that does not adhere to the Berne Convention, and all of the authors of the work are nationals, domiciliaries, or habitual residents of, or in the case of an audiovisual work legal entities with headquarters in, the United States;
(2) in the case of an unpublished work, all the authors of the work are nationals, domiciliaries, or habitual residents of the United States, or, in the case of an unpublished audiovisual work, all the authors are legal entities with headquarters in the United States; or
(3) in the case of a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work incorporated in a building or structure, the building or structure is lo
cated in the United States. For the purposes of section 411, the "country of origin" of any other Berne Convention work is not the United States.
A work is "created" when it is fixed in a copy or phonorecord for the first time; where a work is prepared over a period of time, the portion of it that has been fixed at any particular time constitutes the work as of that time, and where the work has been prepared in different versions, each version constitutes a separate work.
A "derivative work” is a work based upon one or more preexisting works, such as a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted. A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a “derivative work".
A "device", "machine", or "process" is one now known or later developed.
To "display" a work means to show a copy of it, either directly or by means of a film, slide, television image, or any other device or process or, in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show individual images nonsequentially.
A work is "fixed” in a tangible medium of expression when its embodiment in a copy or phonorecord, by or under the authority of the author, is sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated for a period of more than transitory duration. A work consisting of sounds, images, or both, that are being transmitted, is “fixed" for purposes of this title if a fixation of the work is being made simultaneously with its transmission.
The terms “including" and "such as" are illustrative and not limitative.
A “joint work" is a work prepared by two or more authors with the intention that their contributions be merged into inseparable or interdependent parts of a unitary whole.
“Literary works” are works, other than audiovisual works, expressed in words, numbers, or other verbal or numerical symbols or indicia, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as books, periodicals, manuscripts, phonorecords, film, tapes, disks, or cards, in which they are embodied.
"Motion pictures" are audiovisual works consisting of a series of related images which, when shown in succession, impart an impression of motion, together with accompanying sounds, if any.
To “perform" a work means to recite, render, play, dance, or act it, either directly or by means of any device or process or, in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show its images in any sequence or to make the sounds accompanying it audible.
“Phonorecords" are material objects in which sounds, other than those accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work, are fixed by any method now known or later developed, and from which the sounds can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. The term “phonorecords" includes the material object in which the sounds are first fixed.
"Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works" include two-dimensional and three-dirnensional works of fine, graphic, and applied art, photographs, prints and art reproductions, maps, globes, charts, diagrams, models, and technical drawings, including architectural plans. Such works shall include works of artistic craftsmanship insofar as their form but not their mechanical or utilitarian aspects are
concerned; the design of a useful article, as defined in this section, shall be considered a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work only if, and only to the extent that, such design incorporates pictorial, graphic, or sculptural features that can be identified separately from, and are capable of existing independently of, the utilitarian aspects of the article.
A “pseudonymous work" is a work on the copies or phonorecords of which the author is identified under a fictitious name.
"Publication” is the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending. The offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display, constitutes publication. A public performance or display of a work does not of itself constitute publication.
To perform or display a work "publicly" means,
(1) to perform or display it at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered; or
(2) to transmit or otherwise communicate a performance or display of the work to a place specified by clause (1) or to the public, by means of any device or process, whether the members of the public capable of receiving the performance or display receive it in the same place or in separate places and at the same time or at different times. "Sound recordings" are works that result from the fixation of a series of musical, spoken, or other sounds, but not including the sounds accompanying a motion picture or other audiovisual work, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as disks, tapes, or other phonorecords, in which they are embodied.
"State" includes the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territories to which this title is made applicable by an Act of Congress.
A "transfer of copyright ownership” is an assignment, mortgage, exclusive license, or any other conveyance, alienation, or hypothecation of a copyright or of any of the exclusive rights comprised in a copyright, whether or not it is limited in time or place of effect, but not including a nonexclusive license.
A “transmission program" is a body of material that, as an aggregate, has been produced for the sole purpose of transmission to the public in sequence and as a unit.
To “transmit” a performance or display is to communicate it by any device or process whereby images or sounds are received beyond the place from which they are sent.
The “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, comprises the several States, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the organized territories under the jurisdiction of the United States Government.