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PROCLAMATIONS, TREATIES, AND CONVENTIONS ESTABLISHING COPYRIGHT RAATIONS BETWEEN THE UNITED STA
AND OTHER COUNTRIES—Continued
· The proclamations of July 1, 1891 and April 9, 1910, apply to “Great Britain and the British possessions," but the proclamations of January 1, 1915 and April 10, 1920, specifically except Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South Africa. The proclamations of March 10, 1944 and May 26, 1950, enumerate the various British territories to which they apply; the enumeration does not mention the areas specifically excepted in the proclamations of 1915 and 1920. Proclamations establishing individual copyright relations with Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Palestine, and South Africa are listed separately. See also footnotes 2, 11, and 12. The proclamation of December 27, 1923, regarding Canada is considered as applying to Newfoundland at the present time.
The copyright proclamations of July 1, 1891, April 9, 1910, January 1, 1915, April 10, 1920, and March 10, 1944, regarding Great Britain and possessions each applied when issued to the areas now within the boundaries of Burma, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. See footnote 10 with respect to India. No announcement has been made as to the application of the proclamations to Burma, Ceylon, and Pakistan since they acquired their new status.
* The proclamation of December 29, 1949, extends for one year from its date the period of time for compliance by citizens of Australia with the conditions and formalities prescribed by the copyright law of the United States.
* The United States entered into treaties restoring friendly relations with Austria, Germany, and Hungary at Vienna on August 24, 1921 (42 Stat. 1946; TS 659); at Berlin on August 25, 1921 (42 Stat. 1939; TS 658); and at Budapest on August 29, 1921 (42 Stat. 1951; TS 610). By virtue of these treaties the United States became entitled to the benefits of the provisions relative to copyright protection in the treaties of peace signed by Austria, Germany, and Hungary at Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 10, 1919, at Versailles on June 28, 1919, and at Trianon on June 4, 1920, respectively. See also footnote 7.
* The status of copyright relations with China is currently under study, particularly in the light of the recent establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China.
Treaties and conventions containing provisions relative to copyright protection in territories ceded to the United States are not included in this table: for example, the Treaty of Peace with Spain signed at Paris, December 10, 1898 (30 Stat. 1754; TS 343); and the Convention with Denmark for the Cession to the United States of the Danish West Indies, signed at New York, August 4, 1916 (39 Stat. 1706; TS 629).
• The Department of State has made no announcement as to the application of the proclamations of July 1, 1891, April 9, 1910, May 24, 1918, and March 27, 1947, to Cambodia, Laos, and VietNam.
Copyright convention signed at Budapest January 30, 1912 (TS 571). This convention was continued in force following World War I by notice given by the United States on May 27, 1922, to Hungary in pursuance of Article 224 of the Treaty of Trianon concluded on June 4, 1920 (III Redmond 3539), to the benefits of which the United States became entitled by the Treaty of August 29, 1921, establishing friendly relations between the United States and Hungary (42 Stat. 1951; TS 660). The convention of 1912 was kept in force or revived following World War II by notice given on March 9, 1948, by the United States to Hungary pursuant to Article 10 of the Treaty of Peace with Hungary (61 Stat. 2065; Department of State Bulletin, March 21, 1948, p. 382).
• Treaty of Peace with Hungary (Annex IV A) dated at Paris, February 10, 1947 (TIAS 1651).
• Except with respect to rights of third parties, the provisions relating to protection of copyright in the annexes to the Treaties of Peace with Hungary, Italy, and Romania dated at Paris, February 10, 1947, are bilateral in character. For example, the provisions of Annex IV A of the Treaty of Peace with Hungary relate, in general, to copyright relations between Hungary, on the one hand, and each of the other ratifying or adhering States, on the other. Those provisions do not pertain to copyright relations between those other States, except for third party rights. Annex IV of the Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria dated at Paris, February 10, 1947 (61 Stat. 1915; TIAS 1650) contains similar provisions. See also footnote 13.
10 The proclamation of October 21, 1954, affirms the ence of copyright relations with India after August 15, (the effective date of the Indian Independence Act). Se footnote 1.
11 The Department of State has determined that the into force on April 18, 1949, of the Republic of Ireland Ac no effect upon the proclamation of September 28, 1929, re ing the Irish Free State (Eire). Copyright relations with Ir are therefore governed by that proclamation. See also foo 1.
12 The proclamations of March 10, 1944 and May 26, 195 garding Great Britain and possessions, also specifically re Palestine (excluding Trans-Jordan). See also footnote 1.
18 The exchanges of notes between the United States Italy, on the basis of which the proclamations of Octob 1892 and May 1, 1915, were issued, were the subject of a delivered on March 12, 1948, to the Italian Foreign Offi the American Embassy at Rome with respect to pre-war bi al treaties and other international agreements which United States desired to keep in force or revive pursuant t ticle 44 of the Treaty of Peace with Italy. The note stat part "that the Government of the United States of Am wishes to include the reciprocal copyright arrangemen tween the United States and Italy effected pursuant to th change of notes signed at Washington October 28, 1892, an exchanges of notes signed at Washington September 2, February 12, March 4, and March 11, 1915, among the prbilateral treaties and other international agreements with which the United States desires to keep in force or revive cordingly, it is understood that the aforementioned arr ment will continue in force and that the Government of country will extend to the nationals of the other country ment as favorable with respect to copyrights as was cor plated at the time the arrangement was entered into by th countries." (Department of State Bulletin, April 4, 1948, p.
14 Treaty of Peace with Italy (Annex XV A) dated at i January 10, 1947 (TIAS 1648).
16 Copyright convention, signed at Tokyo, November 10. (TS 450). This convention is considered as having been abr ed on April 22, 1953, pursuant to the provisions of Article the Treaty of Peace with Japan signed at San Francisco, tember 8, 1951 (TIAS 2490), since it was not included in th tification which was given on behalf of the United States ernment to the Japanese Government on April 22, 1953, cating the pre-war bilateral treaties or conventions which United States wished to continue in force or revive.
16 Convention between the United States and Japan for rocal protection of inventions, designs, trademarks, and rights in China and other countries where either contra party may exercise extraterritorial jurisdiction, signed at v ington, May 19, 1908 (TS 507). This convention is consider having been abrogated on April 22, 1953, pursuant to the F sions of Article 7 of the Treaty of Peace with Japan signSan Francisco, September 8, 1951 (TIAS 2490), since it wa included in the notification which was given on behalf o. United States Government to the Japanese Governmen April 22, 1953, indicating the pre-war bilateral treaties or ventions which the United States wished to continue in for revive.
17 Treaty of Peace with Japan (Articles 12, 14, and 15) SL at San Francisco, September 8, 1951 (TIAS 2490). See also notes 15, 16, 18, and 19.
18 The proclamation of November 10, 1953, extends ber under the copyright law for a period of four years from coming into force of the Treaty of Peace with Japan ( 2490). That period expired April 28, 1956.
10 Copyright convention with Japan for reciprocal protein Korea of inventions, designs, trademarks, and copyri signed at Washington, May 19, 1908 (TS 506). This conver is considered as having been abrogated on April 22, 1953, po ant to the provisions of Article 7 of the Treaty of Peace Japan signed at San Francisco, September 8, 1951 (TIAS 2 since it was not included in the notification which was give behalf of the United States Government to the Japanese ernment on April 22, 1953, indicating the pre-war bilateral
ties or conventions which the United States wished to continue in force or revive.
20 Belize notified the Director-General of UNESCO on December 1, 1982, of its decision to apply "provisionally, and on the basis of reciprocity" the Universal Copyright Convention as adopted at Geneva on September 6, 1952, the application of which had been extended to its territory before the attainment of independence from the United Kingdom on September 21, 1981.
21 An instrument of accession was deposited by the Philippine Government August 19, 1955. In a communication received by the State Department January 17, 1956, UNESCO stated that by a note dated November 14, 1955, the Philippine Government informed the Director-General of UNESCO that "the President of the *•. Philippines has directed the withdrawal of the • • • accession • • • to the Universal Copyright Convention prior to the date of November 19, 1955, at which time the Convention would become effective" for the Philippines. The Director-General notified the Philippine Government that he “proposed to submit their communication to the States concerned, upon whom it is incumbent to declare what legal inference they intend to draw from it."
22 In a note dellvered February 26, 1948, to the Romanian Minister for Foreign Affairs by the American Minister at Bucharest with respect to pre-war bilateral treaties and other international agrcements which the United States desired to keep in force or revive pursuant to Article 10 of the Treaty of
a Romania, the following statement was made regarding the proclamation of May 14, 1928, and the exchange of notes on which it is based: “It shall be understood that the reciprocal copyright arrangement between the United States and Romania effected pursuant to the exchanges of notes signed at Bucharest May 13 and October 21, 1927 and at Washington May 12 and 19, 1928 and the proclamation issued May 14, 1928 by the President of the United States of America will continue in force." (Department of State Bulletin, March 14, 1948. p. 356). See also footnote 9.
23 Treaty of Peace with Romania, dated at Paris, February 10, 1947 (TIAS 1649).
24 The proclamation of July 10, 1895, regarding Spain was based upon an arrangement between the United States and Spain effected by an exchange of notes signed at Washington, July 6 and 15. 1895. An agreement restoring the arrangement of
6 and 15, 1895, was effected by an exchange of notes signed at Madrid, January 29 and November 18 and 26, 1902 (II Malloy 1710), following the Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain signed at Paris, December 10, 1898 (30 Stat. 1754; TS 343). The latter treaty also contains in Article XIII the following provisions: “The rights of property secured by copyrights and patents acquired by Spaniards in the Island of Cuba, and in Puerto Rico, the Philippines and other ceded territories, at the time of the exchange of ratifications of this treaty, shall continue to be respected. Spanish scientific, literary and artistic works, not subversive of public order in the ter
In question, shall continue to be admitted free of duty into such territories, for the period of ten years, to be reckoned from the date of the exchange of ratification of this treaty."
26 Treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation, protocol and exchanges of notes, signed at Bangkok, November 13, 1937 (TS 940). This treaty replaces the treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation between the United States and Thailand signed at Washington, December 16, 1920 (TS 655), Article XII of which contains provisions relating to copyright protection. The treaty of amity and economic relations, with three exchanges of notes between the United States and Thailand signed at Bangkok, May 29, 1966 (TIAS 6540), replaces the treaty of November 13, 1937. Article V.2 contains provisions relating to copyright.
26 The proclamation of October 4, 1912, stated, in effect, that the law "in Tunis" extended to U.S. citizens protection substantially equal to the protection secured under the copyright law of the United States and declared that "the subjects of Tunis" were entitled to the benefits of the Act of March 4, 1909, as amended, except copyright controlling the mechanical reproduction of a copyrighted musical work.
PROC. No. 3792. COPYRIGHT EXTENSION: GERMANY Proc. No. 3792, July 12, 1967, 32 F.R. 10341, provid. ed:
WHEREAS the President is authorized, in accordance with the conditions prescribed in Section 9 of Title 17 of the United States Code which includes the provisions of the act of Congress approved March 4, 1909, 35 Stat. 1075, as amended by the act of September 25, 1941, 55 Stat. 732, to grant an extension of time for fulfillment of the conditions and formalities prescribed by the copyright laws of the United States of America, with respect to works first produced or published outside the United States of America and sub
ject to copyright or to renewal of copyright under the laws of the United States of America, by nationals of countries which accord substantially equal treatment to citizens of the United States of America; and
WHEREAS satisfactory official assurances have been received that, since April 15, 1892, citizens of the United States have been entitled to obtain copyright in Germany for their works on substantially the same basis as German citizens without the need of complying with any formalities, provided such works secured protection in the United States; and
WHEREAS, pursuant to Article 2 of the Law No. 8, Industrial, Literary and Artistic Property Rights of Foreign Nations and Nationals, promulgated by the Allied High Commission for Germany on October 20, 1949, literary or artistic property rights in Germany owned by United States nationals at the commencement of or during the state of war between Germany and the United States of America which were transferred, seized, requisitioned, revoked or otherwise impaired by war measures, whether legislative, judicial or administrative, were, upon request made prior to October 3, 1950, restored to such United States nationals or their legal successors; and
WHEREAS, pursuant to Article 5 of the aforesaid law, any literary or artistic property right in Germany owned by a United States national at the commencement of or during the state of war between Germany and the United States of America was, upon request made prior to October 3, 1950, extended in term for a period corresponding to the inclusive time from the date of the commencement of the state of war, or such later date on which such right came in existence, to September 30, 1949; and
WHEREAS, by virtue of a proclamation by the President of the United States of America dated May 25, 1922, 42 Stat. 2271, German citizens are and have been entitled to the benefits of the act of Congress approved March 4, 1909, 35 Stat. 1075, as amended, including the benefits of Section 1(e) of the aforementioned Title 17 of the United States Code (section 1(e) of former Title 17); and
WHEREAS, a letter of February 6, 1950, from the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Chairman of the Allied High Commission for Germany established the mutual understanding that reciprocal copyright relations continued in effect between the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America:
NOW, THEREFORE, I, LYNDON B. JOHNSON, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by Section 9 of Title 17 of the United States Code (section 9 of former Title 17), do declare and proclaim:
(1) That, with respect to works first produced or published outside the United States of America: (a) where the work was subject to copyright under the laws of the United States of America on or after September 3, 1939, and on or before May 5, 1956. by an author or other owner who was then a German citizen; or (b) where the work was subject to renewal of copyright under the laws of the United States of America on or after September 3, 1939, and on or before May 5, 1956, by an author or other person specified in Sections 24 and 25 of the aforesaid Title 17 [sections 24 and 25 of former Title 17), who was then a German citizen, there has existed during several years of the aforementioned period such disruption and suspension of facilities essential to compliance with conditions and formalities prescribed with respect to such works by the copyright law of the United States of America as to bring such works within the terms of Section 9(b) of the aforesaid Title 17 (section 9(b) of former Title 17); and
(2) That, in view of the reciprocal treatment accorded to citizens of the United States by the Federal Republic of Germany, the time within which persons who are presently German citizens may comply with such conditions and formalities with respect to such
works is hereby extended for one year after the date of this proclamation.
It shall be understood that the term of copyright in any case is not and cannot be altered or affected by this proclamation. It shall also be understood that, as provided by Section 9(b) of Title 17, United States Code (section 9(b) of former Title 17), no liability shall attach under that title for lawful uses made or acts done prior to the effective date of this proclama. tion in connection with the above-described works, or with respect to the continuance for one year subsequent to such date of any business undertaking or enterprise lawfully undertaken prior to such date involv. ing expenditure or contractual obligation in connection with the exploitation, production, reproduction, circulation or performance of any such works.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twelfth day of July in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-seven, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and ninety-second.
LYNDON B. JOHNSON. PRESIDENTIAL PROCLAMATIONS ISSUED UNDER
PREDECESSOR PROVISIONS Section 104 of Pub. L. 94-553 provided that: “All proclamations issued by the President under section 1(e) or 9(b) of title 17 as it existed on December 31, 1977, or under previous copyright statutes of the United States, shall continue in force until terminated, suspended, or revised by the President."
in this situation is that the public should not be required to pay a "double subsidy," and that it is inconsistent to prohibit copyright in works by Government employees while permitting private copyrights in a growing body of works created by persons who are paid with Government funds. Those arguing in favor of potential copyright protection have stressed the importance of copyright as an incentive to creation and dissemination in this situation, and the basically different policy considerations, applicable to works written by Government employees and those applicable to works prepared by private organizations with the use of Federal funds.
The bill deliberately avoids making any sort of outright, unqualified prohibition against copyright in works prepared under Government contract or grant. There may well be cases where it would be in the public interest to deny copyright in the writings generated by Government research contracts and the like; it can be assumed that, where a Government agency commissions a work for its own use merely as an alternative to having one of its own employees prepare the work, the right to secure a private copyright would be withheld. However, there are almost certainly many other cases where the denial of copyright protection would be unfair or would hamper the production and publication of important works. Where, under the particular circumstances, Congress or the agency involved finds that the need to have a work freely available outweighs the need of the private author to secure copyright, the problem can be dealt with by specific legislation, agency regulations, or contractual restrictions.
The prohibition on copyright protection for United States Government works is not intended to have any effect on protection of these works abroad. Works of the governments of most other countries are copyrighted. There are no valid policy reasons for denying such protection to United States Government works in foreign countries, or for precluding the Government from making licenses for the use of its works abroad.
The effect of section 105 is intended to place all works of the United States Government, published or unpublished, in the public domain. This means that the individual Government official or employee who wrote the work could not secure copyright in it or restrain its dissemination by the Government or anyone else, but it also means that, as far as the copyright law is concerned, the Government could not restrain the employee or official from disseminating the work if he or she chooses to do so. The use of the term "work of the United States Government" does not mean that a work falling within the definition of that term is the property of the U.S. Government.
8 105. Subject matter of copyright: United States Gov.
ernment works Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government, but the United States Government is not precluded from receiving and holding copyrights transferred to it by assignment, bequest, or otherwise. (Pub. L. 94-553, title I, $ 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2546.)
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
HOUSE REPORT NO. 94-1476 Scope of the Prohibition. The basic premise of section 105 of the bill is the same as that of section 8 of the present law (section 8 of former title 17)--that works produced for the U.S. Government by its officers and employees should not be subject to copyright. The provision applies the principle equally to unpublished and published works.
The general prohibition against copyright in section 105 applies to "any work of the United States Govern. ment," which is defined in section 101 as "a work prepared by an officer or employee of the United States Government as part of that person's official duties." Under this definition a Government official or em. ployee would not be prevented from securing copy right in a work written at that person's own volition and outside his or her duties, even though the subject matter involves the Government work or professional field of the official or employee. Although the wording of the definition of "work of the United States Government" differs somewhat from that of the definition of "work made for hire,” the concepts are intended to be construed in the same way.
A more difficult and far-reaching problem is whether the definition should be broadened to prohibit copyright in works prepared under U.S. Government contract or grant. As the bill is written, the Government agency concerned could determine in each case whether to allow an independent contractor or grantee, to secure copyright in works prepared in whole or in part with the use of Government funds. The argument that has been made against allowing copyright
LIMITED EXCEPTION FOR NATIONAL TECHNICAL
INFORMATION SERVICE At the House hearings in 1975 the U.S. Department of Commerce called attention to its National Technical Information Service (NTIS), which has a statutory mandate, under Chapter 23 [8 1151 et seq.) of Title 15 of the U.S. Code, to operate a clearinghouse for the collection and dissemination of scientific, technical and engineering information. Under its statute, NTIS is required to be as self-sustaining as possible, and not to force the general public to bear publishing costs that are for private benefit. The Department urged an amendment to section 105 that would allow it to secure copyright in NTIS publications both in the United States and abroad, noting that a precedent exists in the Standard Reference Data Act (15 U.S.C. $290(e) ($ 290e]).
In response to this request the Committee adopted a limited exception to the general prohibition in section 105, permitting the Secretary of Commerce to "secure copyright for a limited term not to exceed five years, on behalf of the United States as author or copyright owner" in any NTIS publication disseminated pursuant to 15 U.S.C. Chapter 23 ($ 1151 et seq.). In order to
"secure copyright" in a work under this amendment ing the individual images of a motion picture the Secretary would be required to publish the work or other audiovisual work, to display the with a copyright notice, and the five-year term would
copyrighted work publicly. begin upon the date of first publication.
Proposed Saving Clause. Section 8 of the statute now (Pub. L. 94-553, title I, § 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 in effect (section 8 of former title 17) includes a saving Stat. 2546.) clause intended to make clear that the copyright protection of a private work is not affected if the work is
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES published by the Government. This provision serves a real purpose in the present law because of the ambigu
HOUSE REPORT NO. 94-1476 ity of the undefined term “any publication of the
General Scope of Copyright. The five fundamental United States Government." Section 105 of the bill,
rights that the bill gives to copyright owners—the exhowever, uses the operative term "work of the United
clusive rights of reproduction, adaptation, publication, States Government” and defines it in such a way that
performance, and display_are stated generally in sec. privately written works are clearly excluded from the
tion 106. These exclusive rights, which comprise the prohibition; accordingly, a saving clause becomes su
so-called "bundle of rights" that is a copyright, are cuperfluous.
mulative and may overlap in some cases. Each of the Retention of a saving clause has been urged on the
five enumerated rights may be subdivided indefinitely ground that the present statutory provision is fre
and, as discussed below in connection with section 201, quently cited, and that having the provision expressly
each subdivision of an exclusive right may be owned stated in the law would avoid questions and explana
and enforced separately. tions. The committee here observes: (1) there is noth
The approach of the bill is to set forth the copyright ing in section 105 that would relieve the Government
owner's exclusive rights in broad terms in section 106, of its obligation to secure permission in order to pub
and then to provide various limitations, qualifications, lish a copyrighted work; and (2) publication or other
or exemptions in the 12 sections that follow. Thus, evuse by the Government of a private work would not
erything in section 106 is made “subject to sections affect its copyright protection in any way. The ques
107 through 118", and must be read in conjunction tion of use of copyrighted material in documents pub
with those provisions. lished by the Congress and its Committees is discussed
The exclusive rights accorded to a copyright owner below in connection with section 107.
under section 106 are "to do and to authorize" any of Works of the United States Postal Service. The intent of
the activities specified in the five numbered clauses. section 105 (this section) is to restrict the prohibition
Use of the phrase "to authorize" is intended to avoid against Government copyright to works written by
any questions as to the liability of contributory inemployees of the United States Government within
fringers. For example, a person who lawfully acquires the scope of their official duties. In accordance with
an authorized copy of a motion picture would be an inthe objectives of the Postal Reorganization Act of
fringer if he or she engages in the business of renting 1970 [Pub. L. 91-375, which enacted title 39, Postal
it to others for purposes of unauthorized public perService), this section does not apply to works created
formance. by employees of the United States Postal Service. In
Rights of Reproduction, Adaptation, and Publication. The addition to enforcing the criminal statutes proscribing
first three clauses of section 106, which cover all the forgery or counterfeiting of postage stamps, the
rights under a copyright except those of performance Postal Service could, if it chooses, use the copyright
and display, extend to every kind of copyrighted work. law to prevent the reproduction of postage stamp de
The exclusive rights encompassed by these clauses, signs for private or commercial non-postal services (for
though closely related, are independent; they can genexample, in philatelic publications and catalogs, in
erally be characterized as rights of copying, recording, general advertising, in art reproductions, in textile de
adaptation, and publishing. A single act of infringesigns, and so forth). However, any copyright claimed
ment may violate all of these rights at once, as where by the Postal Service in its works, including postage
a publisher reproduces, adapts, and sells copies of a stamp designs, would be subject to the same condi
person's copyrighted work as part of a publishing ventions, formalities, and time limits as other copyrighta
ture. Infringement takes place when any one of the ble works.
rights is violated: where, for example, a printer reproSECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS
duces copies without selling them or a retailer sells
copies without having anything to do with their reproThis section is referred to in title 15 section 290e. duction. The references to "copies or phonorecords,"
although in the plural, are intended here and 8 106. Exclusive rights in copyrighted works
throughout the bill to include the singular (1 U.S.C.
$ 1). Subject to sections 107 through 118, the
Reproduction.-Read together with the relevant owner of copyright under this title has the ex
definitions in section 101, the right "to reproduce the clusive rights to do and to authorize any of the copyrighted work in copies or phonorecords" means following:
the right to produce a material object in which the (1) to reproduce the copyrighted work in work is duplicated, transcribed, imitated, or simulated copies or phonorecords;
in a fixed form from which it can be “perceived, repro(2) to prepare derivative works based upon
duced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or
with the aid of a machine or device." As under the the copyrighted work;
present law, a copyrighted work would be infringed by (3) to distribute copies or phonorecords of
reproducing it in whole or in any substantial part, and the copyrighted work to the public by sale or
by duplicating it exactly or by imitation or simulation. other transfer of ownership, or by rental, Wide departures or variations from the copyrighted lease, or lending;
work would still be an infringement as long as the au(4) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, thor's "expression" rather than merely the author's and choreographic works, pantomimes, and “ideas" are taken. An exception to this general princimotion pictures and other audiovisual works,
ple, applicable to the reproduction of copyrighted to perform the copyrighted work publicly;
sound recordings, is specified in section 114.
“Reproduction" under clause (1) of section 106 is to and
be distinguished from “display" under clause (5). For a (5) in the case of literary, musical, dramatic,
work to be "reproduced," its fixation in tangible form and choreographic works, pantomimes, and must be "sufficiently permanent or stable to permit it pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, includ- to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicat
ed for a period of more than transitory duration." Thus, the showing of images on a screen or tube would not be a violation of clause (1), although it might come within the scope of clause (5).
Preparation of Derivative Works.—The exclusive right to prepare derivative works, specified separately in clause (2) of section 106, overlaps the exclusive right of reproduction to some extent. It is broader than that right, however, in the sense that reproduction requires fixation in copies or phonorecords, whereas the preparation of a derivative work, such as a ballet, pantomime, or improvised performance, may be an infringement even though nothing is ever fixed in tangible form.
To be an infringement the "derivative work” must be "based upon the copyrighted work,” and the defini. tion in section 101 refers to "a translation, musical arrangement, dramatization, fictionalization, motion picture version, sound recording, art reproduction, abridgment, condensation, or any other form in which a work may be recast, transformed, or adapted." Thus, to constitute a violation of section 106(2), the infringing work must incorporate a portion of the copyrighted work in some form; for example, a detailed commentary on a work or a programmatic musical composition inspired by a novel would not normally constitute infringements under this clause.
Use in Information Storage and Retrieval Systems.As section 117 declares explicitly, the bill is not intended to alter the present law with respect to the use of copyrighted works in computer systems.
Public Distribution. Clause (3) of section 106 establishes the exclusive right of publication: The right “to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending." Under this provision the copyright owner would have the right to control the first public distribution of an authorized copy or phonorecord of his work, whether by sale, gift, loan, or some rental or lease arrangement. Likewise, any unauthorized public distribution of copies or phonorecords that were unlawfully made would be an infringement. As section 109 makes clear, however, the copyright owner's rights under section 106(3) cease with respect to a particular copy or phonorecord once he has parted with ownership of it.
Rights of Public Performance and Display. Performing Rights and the "For Profit” Limitation. The right of public performance under section 106(4) extends to "literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works and sound recordings" and, unlike the equivalent provisions now in effect, is not limited by any "for profit” requirement. The approach of the bill, as in many foreign laws, is first to state the public performance right in broad terms, and then to provide specific exemptions for educational and other nonprofit uses.
This approach is more reasonable than the outright exemption of the 1909 statute. The line between commercial and "nonprofit" organizations is increasingly difficult to draw. Many "non-profit" organizations are highly subsidized and capable of paying royalties, and the widespread public exploitation of copyrighted works by public broadcasters and other noncommercial organizations is likely to grow. In addition to these trends, it is worth noting that performances and displays are continuing to supplant markets for printed copies and that in the future a broad "not for profit" exemption could not only hurt authors but could dry up their incentive to write.
The exclusive right of public performance is expanded to include not only motion pictures, including works recorded on film, video tape, and video disks, but also audiovisual works such as filmstrips and sets of slides. This provision of section 106(4), which is consistent with the assimilation of motion pictures to audiovisual works throughout the bill, is also related to amendments of the definitions of "display" and "perform" discussed below. The important issue of
performing rights in sound recordings is discussed in connection with section 114.
Right of Public Display.-Clause (5) of section 106 represents the first explicit statutory recognition in American copyright law of an exclusive right to show a copyrighted work, or an image of it, to the public. The existence or extent of this right under the present statute is uncertain and subject to challenge. The bill would give the owners of copyright in "literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works", including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, the exclusive right "to display the copyrighted work publicly."
Definitions. Under the definitions of "perform," "display,” “publicly," and "transmit" in section 101, the concepts of public performance and public display cover not only the initial rendition or showing, but also any further act by which that rendition or showing is transmitted or communicated to the public. Thus, for example: a singer is performing when he or she sings a song; a broadcasting network is performing when it transmits his or her performance (whether simultaneously or from records); a local broadcaster is performing when it transmits the network broadcast; a cable television system is performing when it retransmits the broadcast to its subscribers; and any individual is performing whenever he or she plays a phonorecord embodying the performance or communi. cates the performance by turning on a receiving set. Although any act by which the initial performance or display is transmitted, repeated, or made to recur would itself be a "performance" or "display" under the bill, it would not be actionable as an infringement unless it were done "publicly," as defined in section 101. Certain other performances and displays, in addition to those that are "private," are exempted or given qualified copyright control under sections 107 through 118.
To "perform" a work, under the definition in section 101, includes reading a literary work aloud, singing or playing music, dancing a ballet or other choreographic work, and acting out a dramatic work or pantomime. A performance may be accomplished “either directly or by means of any device or process," including all kinds of equipment for reproducing or amplifying sounds or visual images, any sort of transmitting apparatus, any type of electronic retrieval system, and any other techniques and systems not yet in use or even invented.
The definition of "perform" in relation to "a motion picture or other audiovisual work" is "to show its images in any sequence or to make the sounds accompanying it audible." The showing of portions of a motion picture, filmstrip, or slide set must therefore be sequential to constitute a "performance" rather than a "display", but no particular order need be maintained. The purely aural performance of a motion picture sound track, or of the sound portions of an audiovisual work, would constitute a performance of the "motion picture or other audiovisual work"; but, where some of the sounds have been reproduced separately on phonorecords, a performance from the phonorecord would not constitute performance of the motion picture or audiovisual work.
The corresponding definition of "display" covers any showing of a "copy" of the work, “either directly or by means of a film, slide, television image, or any other device or process." Since "copies" are defined as including the material object "in which the work is first fixed," the right of public display applies to original works of art as well as to reproductions of them. With respect to motion pictures and other audiovisual works, it is a "display" (rather than a "performance") to show their “individual images nonsequentially." In addition to the direct showings of a copy of a work, "display" would include the projection of an image on a screen or other surface by any method, the transmission of an image by electronic or other means, and the
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