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AMENDMENTS

1988–Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100-690 substituted ", the Deputy” for “or the Deputy” and inserted ", the Associate Attorney General, or any Assistant Attorney General specially designated by the Attorney General" after “Deputy Attorney General".

FAIR HOUSING

Section 101(b) of Pub. L. 90-284 provided that: "Nothing contained in this section (enacting this section) shall apply to or affect activities under title VIII of this Act (sections 3601 to 3619 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare)."

Riots OR CIVIL DISTURBANCES, SUPPRESSION AND RES

TORATION OF LAW AND ORDER; ACTS OR OMISSIONS OF ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF MILITARY SERVICE NOT SUBJECT TO THIS SECTION

Section 101(c) of Pub. L. 90-284 provided that: “The provisions of this section (enacting this section) shall not apply to acts or omissions on the part of law enforcement officers, members of the National Guard, as defined in section 101(9) of title 10, United States Code, members of the organized militia of any State or the District of Columbia, not covered by such section 101(9), or members of the Armed Forces of the United States, who are engaged in suppressing a riot or civil disturbance or restoring law and order during a riot or civil disturbance."

(4) any person because he is or has been, or in order to intimidate such person or any other person or any class of persons from

(A) participating, without discrimination on account of race, color, religion or national origin, in any of the benefits or activities described in subparagraphs (1)(A) through (1)(E) or subparagraphs (2)(A) through (2)(F); or

(B) affording another person or class of persons opportunity or protection to so participate; or

(5) any citizen because he is or has been, or in order to intimidate such citizen or any other citizen from lawfully aiding or encour. aging other persons to participate, without discrimination on account of race, color, religion or national origin, in any of the benefits or activities described in subparagraphs (1)(A) through (1)(E) or subparagraphs (2)(A) through (2)(F), or participating lawfully in speech or peaceful assembly opposing any

denial of the opportunity to so participateshall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for life. As used in this section, the term “participating lawfully in speech or peaceful assembly" shall not mean the aiding, abetting, or inciting of other persons to riot or to commit any act of physical violence upon any individual or against any real or personal property in furtherance of a riot. Nothing in subparagraph (2)(F) or (4)(A) of this subsection shall apply to the proprietor of any establishment which provides lodging to transient guests, or to any employee acting on behalf of such proprietor, with respect to the enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, or accommodations of such establishment if such establishment is located within a building which contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and which is actually occupied by the proprietor as his residence.

(c) Nothing in this section shall be construed so as to deter any law enforcement officer from lawfully carrying out the duties of his office; and no law enforcement officer shall be considered to be in violation of this section for lawfully carrying out the duties of his office or lawfully enforcing ordinances and laws of the United States, the District of Columbia, any of the several States, or any political subdivision of a State. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term “law enforcement officer" means any officer of the United States, the District of Columbia, a State, or political subdivision of a State, who is empowered by law to conduct investigations of, or make arrests because of, offenses against the United States, the District of Columbia, a State, or a political subdivision of a State. (Added Pub. L. 90-284, title I, § 101(a), Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 73, and amended Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, § 7020(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4396.)

246. Deprivation of relief benefits

Whoever directly or indirectly deprives, attempts to deprive, or threatens to deprive any person of any employment, position, work, compensation, or other benefit provided for or made possible in whole or in part by any Act of Congress appropriating funds for work relief or relief purposes, on account of political affiliation, race, color, sex, religion, or national origin, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (Added Pub. L. 94-453, § 4(a), Oct. 2, 1976, 90 Stat. 1517.)

8 247. Damage to religious property; obstruction of

persons in the free exercise of religious beliefs (a) Whoever, in any of the circumstances referred to in subsection (b) of this section

(1) intentionally defaces, damages, or destroys any religious real property, because of the religious character of that property, or attempts to do so; or

(2) intentionally obstructs, by force or threat of force, any person in the enjoyment of that person's free exercise of religious be

liefs, or attempts to do so; shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(b) The circumstances referred to in subsection (a) are that

(1) in committing the offense, the defendant travels in interstate or foreign commerce, or uses a facility or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce in interstate or foreign commerce; and

(2) in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1), the loss resulting from the defacement, damage, or destruction is more than $10,000.

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(c) The punishment for a violation of subsection (a) of this section shall be

(1) if death results, a fine in accordance with this title and imprisonment for any term of years or for life, or both;

(2) if serious bodily injury results, a fine in accordance with this title and imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both; and

(3) in any other case, a fine in accordance with this title and imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.

(d) No prosecution of any offense described in this section shall be undertaken by the United States except upon the notification in writing of the Attorney General or his designee that in his judgment à prosecution by the United States is in the public interest and necessary to secure substantial justice. (e) As used in this section

(1) the term “religious real property" means any church, synagogue, mosque, religious cemetery, or other religious real property; and

(2) the term "serious bodily injury” means bodily injury that involves a substantial risk of death, unconsciousness, extreme physical pain, protracted and obvious disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ, or mental fac

ulty. (Added Pub. L. 100-346, § 1, June 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 644.)

indirectly receives (or agrees to receive) any compensation for representation of any person in the sale of anything to the United States through the military department in which the officer is retired (in the case of an officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps) or through the Department of Transportation (in the case of an officer of the Coast Guard) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than two years, or both.

(2) Any person convicted under paragraph (1) shall be incapable of holding any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States.

(b) A retired officer of the Armed Forces who, while not on active duty and within two years after release from active duty, acts as agent or attorney for prosecuting or assisting in the prosecution of any claim against the United States

(1) involving the military department in which the officer is retired (in the case of an officer of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps) or the Department of Transportation (in the case of an officer of the Coast Guard); or

(2) involving any subject matter with which the officer was directly connected while in an

active-duty status; shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (c) This section does not apply

(1) to any person because of the person's membership in the National Guard of the District of Columbia; or

(2) to any person specifically excepted by law.

CHAPTER 15-CLAIMS AND SERVICES IN

MATTERS AFFECTING GOVERNMENT

(Added Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title VIII, $ 822(b)(1), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1132.)

Sec. 281. Restrictions on retired military officers re

garding certain matters affecting the Gov

ernment. [282 to 284. Repealed.) 285. Taking or using papers relating to claims. 286.

Conspiracy to defraud the Government with

respect to claims. 287. False, fictitious or fraudulent claims. 288. False claims for postal losses. 289.

False claims for pensions. 290.

Discharge papers withheld by claim agent. 291.

Purchase of claims for fees by court officials. 292. Solicitation of employment and receipt of

unapproved fees concerning Federal em

ployees' compensation. 293. Limitation on Government contract costs.

AMENDMENTS 1988–Pub. L. 100-700, $ 3(b), Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4633, added item 293.

1987-Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title VIII, § 822(b)(2), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1133, added item 281, struck out former item 281 “Compensation to Members of Congress, officers, and others in matters affecting Government", item 282 "Practice in Court of Claims by Members of Congress", item 283 "Officers or employees interested in claims against the Government”, and item 284 "Disqualification of former officers and employees in matters connected with former duties”.

1966—Pub. L. 89-554, § 3(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 608, added item 292.

PRIOR PROVISIONS A prior section 281, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 697; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, $ 6, 63 Stat. 90, which related to compensation to Members of Congress, officers and others in matters affecting the Government, was repealed by Pub. L. 87-849, $ $ 2, 4, Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1126, eff. 90 days after Oct. 23, 1962, which repeal continued limited applicability to retired officers of the Armed Forces of the United States. Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title VIII, § 822(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1132, repealed such prior section 281 to the extent that it had not been repealed by section 2 of Pub. L. 87-849.

Such prior section 281 was supplanted by section 203 of this title.

[8 282. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-849, 82, Oct. 23, 1962, 76

Stat. 1126)

Section, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 697, related to practice in Court of Claims by Members of Congress. Section was supplanted by section 204 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL

$ 281. Restrictions on retired military officers regard

ing certain matters affecting the Government (a)(1) A retired officer of the Armed Forces who, while not on active duty and within two years after release from active duty, directly or

Repeal of section effective 90 days after Oct. 23, 1962, see section 4 of Pub. L. 87-849, set out as an Effective Date note under section 201 of this title.

[8 283. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-849, 8 2, Oct. 23, 1962, 76

Stat. 1126; Pub. L. 100-180, div. A, title VIII, 8 822(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1132]

CROSS REFERENCES Claims generally, see section 3721 et seq. of Title 31, Money and Finance.

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in title 22 section 3622.

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 697; June 28, 1949, ch. 268, $ 2(b), 63 Stat. 280, related to officers or employees interested in claims against the government. Pub. L. 87-849 continued limited applicability to retired officers of the Armed Forces of the United States. Pub. L. 100-180 repealed section to the extent that it had not been repealed by section 2 of Pub. L. 87-849. Section was supplanted by section 205 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL Repeal of section effective 90 days after Oct. 23, 1962, see section 4 of Pub. L. 87-849, set out as an Effective Date note under section 201 of this title.

8 286. Conspiracy to defraud the Government with re

spect to claims Whoever enters into any agreement, combination, or conspiracy to defraud the United States, or any department or agency thereof, by obtaining or aiding to obtain the payment or allowance of any false, fictitious or fraudulent claim, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 698.)

[8 284. Repealed. Pub. L. 87-849, 82, Oct. 23, 1962, 76

Stat. 1126)

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 698; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, $ 7, 63 Stat. 90, related to disqualifications of former officers and employees in matters connected with former duties. Section was supplanted by section 207 of this title.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., & 83 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 35, 35 Stat. 1095; Oct. 23, 1918, ch. 194, 40 Stat. 1015; June 18, 1934, ch. 587, 48 Stat. 996; Apr. 4, 1938, ch. 69, 52 Stat. 197).

To clarify meaning of "department" the word "agency” was inserted after it. (See definitions of "department" and "agency" in section 6 of this title.)

Words “or any corporation in which the United States of America is a stockholder" were omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "agency" in section 6 of this title.

Minor changes in phraseology were made.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL Repeal of section effective 90 days after Oct. 23, 1962, see section 4 of Pub. L. 87-849, set out as an Effective Date note under section 201 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES Conspiracy to defraud United States, generally, see section 371 of this title.

False pension claims, see section 3503 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

Liability of persons making false claims; suits and procedure; duty of district attorneys; limitation of suits, see sections 3729 to 3731 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

National Service Life Insurance, false or fraudulent statements, see section 787 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

Wartime suspension of limitations, see section 3287 of this title.

8 285. Taking or using papers relating to claims

Whoever, without authority, takes and car. ries away from the place where it was filed, deposited, or kept by authority of the United States, any certificate, affidavit, deposition, statement of facts, power of attorney, receipt, voucher, assignment, or other document, record, file, or paper prepared, fitted, or intended to be used or presented to procure the payment of money from or by the United States or any officer, employee, or agent thereof, or the allowance or payment of the whole or any part of any claim, account, or demand against the United States, whether the same has or has not already been so used or presented, and whether such claim, account, or demand, or any part thereof has or has not already been allowed or paid; or

Whoever presents, uses, or attempts to use any such document, record, file, or paper so taken and carried away, to procure the payment of any money from or by the United States, or any officer, employee, or agent thereof, or the allowance or payment of the whole or any part of any claim, account, or demand against the United States

Shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 698.)

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in title 12 section 1457.

8 287. False, fictitious or fraudulent claims

Whoever makes or presents to any person or officer in the civil, military, or naval service of the United States, or to any department or agency thereof, any claim upon or against the United States, or any department or agency thereof, knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent, shall be imprisoned not more than five years and shall be subject to a fine in the amount provided in this title. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 698; Oct. 27, 1986, Pub. L. 99-562, § 7, 100 Stat. 3169.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., § 92 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch, 321, $ 40, 35 Stat. 1096).

Word “employee” was inserted after “officer" in two places to clarify scope of section.

The words "five years" were substituted for “ten years" in the punishment provision to conform to like provisions in similar offenses. (See section 1001 of this title.)

Changes were made in phraseology.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., $ 80 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 35, 35 Stat. 1095; Oct. 23, 1918, ch. 194, 40 Stat. 1015; June 18, 1934, ch. 587, 48 Stat. 996; Apr. 4, 1938, ch. 69, 52 Stat. 197).

Section 80 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was divided into two parts. That portion making it a crime to present false claims was retained as this section. The

Where the amount of such claim or application for indemnity is less than $100 only a fine shall be imposed. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 698.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

part relating to false statements is now section 1001 of this title.

To clarify meaning of "department" words "agency" and “or agency" were inserted after it. (See definitions of "department" and "agency" in section 6 of this title.)

Words "or any corporation in which the United States of America is a stockholder" which appeared in two places were omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "agency" in section 6 of this title.

The words "five years" were substituted for “ten years" to harmonize the punishment provisions of comparable sections involving offenses of the gravity of felonies, but not of such heinous character as to warrant a 10-year punishment. (See sections 914, 1001, 1002, 1005, 1006 of this title.)

Reference to persons causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of "principal" in section 2 of this title. Minor changes in phraseology were made.

AMENDMENTS 1986—Pub. L. 99-562 substituted “imprisoned not more than five years and shall be subject to a fine in the amount provided in this title" for “fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both".

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., $ 354 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 224, 35 Stat. 1133; Aug. 5, 1939, ch. 429, 53 Stat. 1203).

Reference to persons causing, assisting, aiding, or abetting, was omitted as such persons are made principals by section 2 of this title.

Changes in phraseology were made.

CROSS REFERENCES

False statements or entries, generally, see section 1001 of this title.

INCREASED PENALTIES FOR FALSE CLAIMS IN DEFENSE

PROCUREMENT Pub. L. 99-145, title IX, $ 931(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 699, provided that: “Notwithstanding sections 287 and 3623 of title 18, United States Code, the maximum fine that may be imposed under such section for making or presenting any claim upon or against the United States related to a contract with the Department of Defense, knowing such claim to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent, is $1,000,000."

(Section 931(c) of Pub. L. 99-145 provided that section 931(a) is applicable to claims made or presented on or after Nov. 8, 1985.)

CANAL ZONE Applicability of section to Canal Zone, see section 14 of this title.

8 289. False claims for pensions

Whoever knowingly and willfully makes, or presents any false, fictitious or fraudulent affidavit, declaration, certificate, voucher, endorsement, or paper or writing purporting to be such, concerning any claim for pension or payment thereof, or pertaining to any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs, or knowingly or willfully makes or presents any paper required as a voucher in drawing a pension, which paper bears a date subsequent to that upon which it was actually signed or acknowledged by the pensioner; or

Whoever knowingly and falsely certifies that the declarant, affiant, or witness named in such declaration, affidavit, voucher, endorsement, or other paper or writing personally appeared before him and was sworn thereto, or acknowledged the execution thereof

Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 699.)

CROSS REFERENCES False statements or entries, generally, see section 1001 of this title.

Liability of persons making false claims; jurisdiction and parties; duty of district attorneys; rights of plaintiffs; limitation of suits, see sections 3729 to 3731 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 14, 1345 of this title; title 10 section 2324; title 12 section 1457.

8 288. False claims for postal losses

Whoever makes, alleges, or presents any claim or application for indemnity for the loss of any registered or insured letter, parcel, package, or other article or matter, or the contents thereof, knowing such claim or application to be false, fictitious, or fraudulent; or

Whoever for the purpose of obtaining or aiding to obtain the payment or approval of any such claim or application, makes or uses any false statement, certificate, affidavit, or deposition; or

Whoever knowingly and willfully misrepresents, or misstates, or, for the purpose aforesaid, knowingly and willfully conceals any material fact or circumstance in respect of any such claim or application for indemnity

Shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on section 81 of title 18, section 126 of title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief, and section 787 of title 43, Public Lands, all of U.S.C., 1940 ed. (R.S. § 4746; July 7, 1898, ch. 578, 30 Stat. 718; Aug. 17, 1912, ch. 301, § 1, 37 Stat. 312; July 3, 1930, ch. 863, § 2, 46 Stat. 1016).

Reference to persons aiding or assisting or causing or procuring was omitted as unnecessary in view of definition of “principal" in section 2 of this title,

Words “or bounty land", before "prosecution of any claim for pension", were omitted as obsolete. (See reviser's note under section 290 of this title.)

Upon authority of 1930 enactment words "Administrator of Veterans' Affairs" were substituted for "Commissioner of Pensions or of the Secretary of the Interior", which appeared in 1898 enactment.

The fine was changed from "$500" for "$10,000" to conform with punishment provision of section 287 of this title.

Minor changes in phraseology were also made.

CHANGE OF NAME

Reference to Administrator of Veterans' Affairs deemed to refer to Secretary of Veterans Affairs pursuant to section 10 of Pub. L. 100-527, set out as a Department of Veterans Affairs Act note under section 201 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

CROSS REFERENCES Administrator of Veterans' Affairs, appointment and authority, see section 210 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

False statements or entries, generally, see section 1001 of this title.

8 291. Purchase of claims for fees by court officials

Whoever, being a judge. clerk, or deputy clerk of any court of the United States or a Territory or Possession thereof, or a United States district attorney, assistant attorney, marshal, deputy marshal, commissioner, or other person holding any office or employment, or position of trust or profit under the United States, directly or indirectly purchases at less than the full face value thereof, any claim against the United States for the fee, mileage, or expenses of any witness, juror, deputy marshal, or any other officer of such court, shall be fined not more than $1,000. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 699.)

8 290. Discharge papers withheld by claim agent

Whoever, being a claim agent, attorney, or other person engaged in the collection of claims for pay, pension, or other allowances for any soldier, sailor, or marine, or for any commissioned officer of the military or naval forces, or for any person who may have been a soldier, sailor, marine, or officer of the regular or volunteer forces of the United States, or for his dependents or beneficiaries, retains, without the consent of the owner or owners thereof, or refuses to deliver or account for the same upon demand duly made by the owner or owners thereof, or by their agent or attorney, the discharge papers of any such soldier, sailor, or marine, or commissioned officer, which may have been placed in his hands for the purpose of collecting said claims, shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than six months, or both; and shall be debarred from prosecuting any such claim in any department or agency of the United States. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 699.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., $ 193 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, $ 104, 35 Stat. 1107).

Word "Possession" was inserted to clarify scope of section.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

CHANGE OF NAME United States commissioners, referred to in text, were replaced by United States magistrates pursuant to Pub. L. 90-578, title IV, $ 402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118. See chapter 43 (8 631 et seq.) of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CROSS REFERENCES
Assignment of claims, see section 3727 of Title 31,
Money and Finance.
Fees, mileage, or expenses of -
Deputy marshals, see sections 571, 572 of Title 28,

Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Jurors, see sections 1824, 1871 of Title 28.
Witnesses, see sections 1821, 1824, 1825, 1920, 1922

of Title 28.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on section 100 of title 31, Money and Finance, section 130 of title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief, and section 841 of title 43, Public Lands, all U.S.C., 1940 ed. (May 21, 1872, ch. 178, 17 Stat. 137).

Words “deemed guilty of a misdemeanor" were deleted as unnecessary. (See definition of "misdemeanor" in section 1 of this title.)

Words "and shall upon conviction, be" were omitted as surplusage since punishment can follow only after conviction.

To clarify meaning of “executive department” word "executive" before "department" was deleted and words “or agency" were inserted after it. (See definitions of "department" and "agency" in section 6 of this title.)

Words "bounty", before “pension", and "orland warrant”, before "of any such soldier”, were deleted as obsolete. According to regulations, Circular 1151, January 8, 1929, issued by the Secretary of the Interior and the General Land Office (see 43 CFR 131.1-131.2) "warrants for bounty lands were and are issued by the Commissioner of Pensions (Administrator of Veterans' Affairs) for services in wars or battles prior to March 3, 1855 only." Further, it is stated that "Warrants can not now be located' upon the public lands. The locating privilege was denied except in the state of Missouri after the passage of the act of March 2, 1889 (25 Stat. 854; 43 U.S.C. $ 700), and there are no lands known to the General Land Office to be subject to warrant location in Missouri."

Words "and honorably discharged" were omitted as unnecessary and words "or for his dependents or beneficiaries” were inserted after “United States" so as to embrace an important class of persons who employ attorneys or agents in the collection of claims permitted by statute.

Minor changes of phraseology were also made.

§ 292. Solicitation of employment and receipt of un

approved fees concerning Federal employees'

compensation Whoever solicits employment for himself or another in respect to a case, claim, or award for compensation under, or to be brought under, subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5; or

Whoever receives a fee, other consideration, or gratuity on account of legal or other services furnished in respect to a case, claim, or award for compensation under subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5, unless the fee, consideration, or gratuity is approved by the Secretary of Labor

Shall, for each offense, be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (Added Pub. L. 89-554, $ 3(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 608.)

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CROSS REFERENCES Withholding claim or benefit allowed and due, see section 3405 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

The words “under subchapter I of chapter 81 of title 5" are substituted for "under this Act" (Federal Em

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