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(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 689; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95-598, title III, § 314(b)(1), 92 Stat. 2676.)

member-elect of Congress, a member of the executive branch who is the head of a department listed in 5 U.S.C. 101, or the Director of

The 2 Central Intelligence Agency. (Added Pub. L. 98-473, title II, § 1008(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2140, and amended Pub. L. 99-646, $$ 37(a), 60, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3613; Pub. L. 100-690, title

VI, $ 6487(f)[b], Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4386.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on section 52(f) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy (July 1, 1898, ch. 541, $ 29f as added June 22, 1938, ch. 575, § 1, 52 Stat. 857).

Definition of "bankruptcy" was added to avoid repetitious references to said title 11.

Minor changes in phraseology was made.

3599,

AMENDMENTS

AMENDMENTS 1978—Pub. L. 95-598 substituted "Definition" for Definitions" in section catchline, substituted definition of "debtor" as a debtor concerning whom a petition has been filed under title 11 for definition of "bankrupt” as a debtor by or against whom a petition has been filed under title 11, and struck out definition of "bankruptcy" as including any proceeding, arrangement, or plan pursuant to title 11.

1988–Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100-690 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: “Whoever assaults, kidnaps, or murders, or attempts to kidnap or murder, or threatens to assault, kidnap or murder a member of the immediate family of a United States official, a United States judge, a Federal law enforcement officer, or an official whose killing would be a crime under section 1114 of this title, or threatens to assault, kidnap, or murder, a United States official, a United States judge, a Federal law enforcement officer, or an official whose killing would be a crime under such section with intent to impede, intimidate, interfere with, or retaliate against such official, judge or law enforcement officer while engaged in or on account of the performance of official duties, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b)."

1986–Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-646, $ 60, substituted "section 1114 of this title, or threatens to assault, kidnap, or murder, a United States official, a United States judge, a Federal law enforcement officer, or an official whose killing would be a crime under such section" for "18 U.S.C. 1114, as amended,", "while engaged” for “while he is engaged", and "official duties" for "his official duties”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99-646, $ 37(a), inserted "for the kidnapping or attempted kidnapping of a person described in section 1201(a)(5) of this title”.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Ef. fective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

SAVINGS PROVISION Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95-598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§ 151 et seq.), chapter 96 (f 1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 2516, 4243 of this title.

CROSS REFERENCES General definitions, see section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

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AMENDMENTS 1978–Pub. L. 95-598, title III, § 314(b)(2), (d)(3), (e)(3), (f)(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2677, substituted in item 151 "Definition" for "Definitions"; struck from item 153", receiver" after “trustee" and from item 154 “referees and other" before "officers"; and substituted in item 155 "cases under title 11 and receiverships" for "bankruptcy proceedings”.

g 152. Concealment of assets; false oaths and claims;

bribery Whoever knowingly and fraudulently conceals from a custodian, trustee, marshal, or other officer of the court charged with the control or custody of property, or from creditors in any case under title 11, any property belonging to the estate of a debtor; or

Whoever knowingly and fraudulently makes a false oath or account in or in relation to any case under title 11; or

Whoever knowingly and fraudulently makes a false declaration, certificate, verification, or statement under penalty of perjury as permitted under section 1746 of title 28, United States Code, in or in relation to any case under title 11; or

Whoever knowingly and fraudulently presents any false claim for proof against the estate of a debtor, or uses any such claim in any case under title 11, personally, or by agent, proxy, or attorney, or as agent, proxy, or attorney; or

Whoever knowingly and fraudulently receives any material amount of property from a debtor after the filing of a case under title 11, with intent to defeat the provisions of title 11; or

Whoever knowingly and fraudulently gives, offers, receives or attempts to obtain any money or property, remuneration, compensa

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This chapter is referred to in section 3057 of title.

8 151. Definition

As used in this chapter, the term "debtor" means a debtor concerning whom a petition has been filed under title 11.

So in original.

tion, reward, advantage, or promise thereof, for chapter 96 (1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or acting or forbearing to act in any case under 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committitle 11; or

ted before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, Whoever, either individually or as an agent or

1979, in connection with a case commenced before officer of any person or corporation, in contem

such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out plation of a case under title 11 by or against

as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankhim or any other person or corporation, or with

ruptcy. intent to defeat the provisions of title 11, know

CROSS REFERENCES ingly and fraudulently transfers or conceals any of his property or the property of such Bankruptcy investigations; duties of United States other person or corporation; or

attorney, see section 3057 of this title. Whoever, after the filing of a case under title

Discharges, refusal to grant when offense commit11 or in contemplation thereof, knowingly and

ted, see section 727 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. fraudulently conceals, destroys, mutilates, falsi

Limitation of prosecutions, see sections 3282, 3284 of

this title. fies, or makes a false entry in any recorded information, including books, documents, records,

Wire or oral communications, authorization for

interception, to provide evidence of bankruptcy fraud and papers, relating to the property or finan

offenses, see section 2516 of this title. cial affairs of a debtor; or Whoever, after the filing of a case under title

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS 11, knowingly and fraudulently withholds from a custodian, trustee, marshal, or other officer

This section is referred to in section 1956 of this of the court entitled to its possession, any re

title; title 7 section 12a; title 15 sections 780, 806-3. corded information, including books, documents, records, and papers, relating to the

§ 153. Embezzlement by trustee or officer property or financial affairs of a debtor.

Whoever knowingly and fraudulently approShall be fined not more than $5,000 or impris

priates to his own use, embezzles, spends, or oned not more than five years, or both.

transfers any property or secretes or destroys (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 689; June 12, any document belonging to the estate of a 1960, Pub. L. 86-519, $ 2, 74 Stat. 217; Sept. 2, debtor which came into his charge as trustee, 1960, Pub. L. 86-701, 74 Stat. 753; Oct. 18, 1976, custodian, marshal, or other officer of the Pub. L. 94-550, $ 4, 90 Stat. 2535; Nov. 6, 1978, court, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or Pub. L. 95-598, title III, § 314(a), (c), 92 Stat. imprisoned not more than five years, or both. 2676, 2677; Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, $ 7017, 102 Stat. 4395.)

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 690; Nov. 6,

1978, Pub. L. 95-598, title III, § 314(a)(1), (d)(1), HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

(2), 92 Stat. 2676, 2677.) Based on section 52(b) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy (July 1, 1898, ch. 541, § 29b, 30 Stat. 554;

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES May 27, 1926, ch. 406, § 11 (part), 44 Stat. 665; June 22,

Based on section 52(a) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., 1938, ch. 575, $ 1 (part), 52 Stat. 855).

Bankruptcy (July 1, 1898, ch. 541, $ 29a, 30 Stat. 554; Section was broadened to apply to one who gives or

May 27, 1926, ch. 406, § 11 (part), 44 Stat. 665; June 22, offers a bribe.

1938, ch. 575, $ 1 (part), 52 Stat. 855). Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.
AMENDMENTS

AMENDMENTS
1988-Pub. L. 100-690 substituted "penalty of perju-
ry" for "penalty or perjury" in third par.

1978–Pub. L. 95-598 struck out “, receiver” after 1978-Pub. L. 95-598 substituted, wherever appear.

“trustee" in section catchline and in text struck out ing, "debtor" for "bankrupt", "case under title 11" for

"receiver," before "custodian" and substituted "bankruptcy proceeding", and "provisions of title 11"

"debtor" for "bankrupt”. for "bankruptcy law": and substituted "a custodian" for “the receiver, custodian", wherever appearing, and

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT "recorded information, including books, documents, records, and papers, relating to the property or finan Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, cial affairs" for "document affecting or relating to the

see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Ef. property or affairs", in two places.

fective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, 1976-Pub. L. 94-550 inserted paragraph covering

Bankruptcy. the knowing and fraudulent making of a false declaration, certificate, verification, or statement under pen.

SAVINGS PROVISION alty of perjury as permitted under section 1746 of title 28 or in relation to any bankruptcy proceeding.

Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95-598 not to 1960-Pub. L. 86-701 included fraudulent transfers affect the application of chapter 9 (§ 151 et seq.), and concealment of property by persons in their indi. chapter 96 (f 1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or vidual capacity in sixth par.

3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) commitPub. L. 86-519 struck out "under oath” after "know

ted before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, ingly and fraudulently presents" in third par.

1979, in connection with a case commenced before

such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT

as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, BankAmendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, ruptcy. see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11,

CROSS REFERENCES Bankruptcy.

Certain debts of bankrupt as not affected by a disSAVINGS PROVISION

charge, see section 727 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95-598 not to Embezzlement by court officers, generally, see secaffect the application of chapter 9 (8 151 et seq.),

tion 645 of this title.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

1948 Act

Based on section 572a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (Aug. 25, 1937, ch. 777, 50 Stat. 810.)

Words "upon conviction” were deleted as surplusage since punishment can be imposed only after a conviction.

A fine of “$5,000" was substituted for "$10,000” and "one year" for "five years", to reduce the offense to the grade of a misdemeanor and the punishment to an amount and term proportionate to the gravity of the offense.

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

1949 ACT

This amendment (see section 4) clarifies section 155 of title 18, U.S.C., by restating the first paragraph thereof in closer conformity with the original law, as it existed at the time of the enactment of the revision of title 18.

8 154. Adverse interest and conduct of officers

Whoever, being a custodian, trustee, marshal, or other officer of the court, knowingly purchases, directly or indirectly, any property of the estate of which he is such officer in a case under title 11; or

Whoever being such officer, knowingly refuses to permit a reasonable opportunity for the inspection of the documents and accounts relating to the affairs of estates in his charge by parties in interest when directed by the court to do so

Shall be fined not more than $500, and shall forfeit his office, which shall thereupon become vacant. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 690; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95-598, title III, § 314(a)(2), (e)(1), (2), 92 Stat. 2676, 2677.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on section 52(c) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy (July 1, 1898, ch. 541, § 290, 30 Stat. 554; June 22, 1938, ch. 575, $ 1 (part), 52 Stat. 856). Minor changes were made in phraseology.

AMENDMENTS 1978–Pub. L. 95-598 struck out "referees and other" before "officers” in section catchline, and in text struck out “Whoever knowingly acts as a referee in a cune in which he is directly or indirectly interested; or" before "Whoever, being a" and "referee, receiver," before "custodian" and substituted "case under title 11" for "bankruptcy proceeding".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

SAVINGS PROVISION Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95-598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§ 151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§ 1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

AMENDMENTS

1978–Pub. L. 95-598 substituted “cases under title 11 and receiverships" for "bankruptcy proceedings" in section catchline and in text "or case under title 11" for “, bankruptcy or reorganization proceeding", inserted “knowingly and fraudulently" after "supervi. sion,", and struck out penalty provision for a judge of a United States court to knowingly approve the payment of any fees or compensation that were fixed.

1949-Act May 24, 1949, inserted references to attorneys for any party in interest in three places, and substituted “in any United States court or under its supervision” for “in or under the supervision of any court of the United States".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

SAVINGS PROVISION

Amendment by section 314 of Pub. L. 95-598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§ 151 et seq.), chapter 96 (1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

CHAPTER 11-BRIBERY, GRAFT, AND

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

8 155. Fee agreements in cases under title 11 and re

ceiverships Whoever, being a party in interest, whether as a debtor, creditor, receiver, trustee or representative of any of them, or attorney for any such party in interest, in any receivership or case under title 11 in any United States court or under its supervision, knowingly and fraudulently enters into any agreement, express or implied, with another such party in interest or attorney for another such party in interest, for the purpose of fixing the fees or other compensation to be paid to any party in interest or to any attorney for any party in interest for services rendered in connection therewith, from the assets of the estate, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 690; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, § 4, 63 Stat. 90; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95-598, title III, § 314(f)(1), (2), 92 Stat. 2677.)

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Sec. 205. Activities of officers and employees in claims

against and other matters affecting the

Government. 206. Exemption of retired officers of the uni

formed services. 207. Disqualification of former officers and em

ployees; disqualification of partners of cur

rent officers and employees. 208. Acts affecting a personal financial interest. 209. Salary of Government officials and employ

ees payable only by United States. 210. Offer to procure appointive public office. 211. Acceptance or solicitation to obtain appoint

ive public office. 212. Offer of loan or gratuity to bank examiner. 213. Acceptance of loan or gratuity by bank ex

aminer. 214. Offer for procurement of Federal Reserve

bank loan and discount of commercial

paper. 215. Receipt of commissions or gifts for procuring

loans. 216. Repealed. 217. Acceptance of consideration for adjustment

of farm indebtedness. 218. Voiding transactions in violation of chapter;

recovery by the United States. 219. Officers and employees acting as agents of

foreign principals. [220 to 222. Redesignated.] [223. Repealed.) 224. Bribery in sporting contests.

AMENDMENTS 1984–Pub. L. 98-473, title II, $ 1107(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2146, substituted “Repealed” for “Receipt or charge of commissions or gifts for farm loan, land bank, or small business transactions" in item 216.

1978–Pub. L. 95-521, title V, $ 501(b), Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1867, struck out "in matters connected with former duties or official responsibilities” after “officers and employees" and inserted “of current officers and employees" after “partners of" in item 207.

1966–Pub. L. 89-486, § 8(c)2), July 4, 1966, 80 Stat. 249, added item 219.

1964–Pub. L. 88-316, § 1(b), June 6, 1964, 78 Stat. 204, added item 224.

1962–Pub. L. 87-849, § 1(a), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1119, included conflicts of interests in chapter heading, and amended analysis generally to contain items 201 to 218. Prior to amendment, the analysis contained items 201 to 223.

1958—Pub. L. 85-699, title VII, $ 702(d), Aug. 21 1958, 72 Stat. 698, included small business transactions in item 221.

CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This chapter is referred to in title 15 sections 1942, 2625; title 22 section 3622; title 43 section 1817.

public official, or has been officially informed that such person will be so nominated or appointed; and

(3) the term "official act" means any decision or action on any question, matter, cause, suit, proceeding or controversy, which may at any time be pending, or which may by law be brought before any public official, in such of. ficial's official capacity, or in such official's place of trust or profit. (b) Whoever

(1) directly or indirectly, corruptly gives, offers or promises anything of value to any public official or person who has been selected to be a public official, or offers or promises any public official or any person who has been selected to be a public official to give anything of value to any other person or entity, with intent

(A) to influence any official act; or

(B) to influence such public official or person who has been selected to be a public official to commit or aid in committing, or collude in, or allow, any fraud, or make opportunity for the commission of any fraud, on the United States; or

(C) to induce such public official or such person who has been selected to be a public official to do or omit to do any act in violation of the lawful duty of such official or person;

(2) being a public official or person selected to be a public official, directly or indirectly, corruptly demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept anything of value personally or for any other person or entity, in return for:

(A) being influenced in the performance of any official act;

(B) being influenced to commit or aid in committing, or to collude in, or allow, any fraud, or make opportunity for the commission of any fraud on the United States; or

(C) being induced to do or omit to do any act in violation of the official duty of such official or person;

(3) directly or indirectly, corruptly gives, offers, or promises anything of value to any person, or offers or promises such person to give anything of value to any other person or entity, with intent to influence the testimony under oath or affirmation of such first-mentioned person as a witness upon a trial, hearing, or other proceeding, before any court, any committee of either House or both Houses of Congress, or any agency, commission, or officer authorized by the laws of the United States to hear evidence or take testimony, or with intent to influence such person to absent himself therefrom;

(4) directly or indirectly, corruptly demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept anything of value personally or for any other person or entity in return for being influenced in testimony under oath or affirmation as a witness upon any such trial, hearing, or other proceeding, or in return for absenting himself therefrom;

shall be fined not more than three times the monetary equivalent of the thing of

means

8 201. Bribery of public officials and witnesses (a) For the purpose of this section

(1) the term “public official" Member of Congress, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner, either before or after such official has qualified, or an officer or employee or person acting for or on behalf of the United States, or any department, agency or branch of Government thereof, including the District of Columbia, in any official function, under or by authority of any such department, agency, or branch of Government, or a juror;

(2) the term "person who has been selected to be a public official” means any person who has been nominated or appointed to be a

PRIOR PROVISIONS A prior section 201, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 691, prescribed penalties for anyone who offered or gave anything of value to an officer or other person to influence his decisions, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 87-849, and is substantially covered by revised section 201.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in former sections 201 to 213 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 87-849.

AMENDMENTS

value, or imprisoned for not more than fifteen years, or both, and may be disqualified from holding any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States. (c) Whoever

(1) otherwise than as provided by law for the proper discharge of official duty

(A) directly or indirectly gives, offers, or promises anything of value to any public of. ficial, former public official, or person selected to be a public official, for or because of any official act performed or to be performed by such public official, former public official, or person selected to be a public official; or

(B) being a public official, former public official, or person selected to be a public official, otherwise than as provided by law for the proper discharge of official duty, directly or indirectly demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept anything of value personally for or because of any official act performed or to be performed by such official or person;

(2) directly or indirectly, gives, offers, or promises anything of value to any person, for or because of the testimony under oath or affirmation given or to be given by such person as a witness upon a trial, hearing, or other proceeding, before any court, any committee of either House or both Houses of Congress, or any agency, commission, or officer authorized by the laws of the United States to hear evidence or take testimony, or for or because of such person's absence therefrom;

(3) directly or indirectly, demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept anything of value personally for or because of the testimony under oath or affirmation given or to be given by such person as a witness upon any such trial, hearing, or other proceeding, or for or because of such person's absence therefrom;

shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for not more than two years, or both.

(d) Paragraphs (3) and (4) of subsection (b) and paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (c) shall not be construed to prohibit the payment or receipt of witness fees provided by law, or the payment, by the party upon whose behalf a witness is called and receipt by a witness, of the reasonable cost of travel and subsistence incurred and the reasonable value of time lost in attendance at any such trial, hearing, or proceeding, or in the case of expert witnesses, a reasonable fee for time spent in the preparation of such opinion, and in appearing and testifying.

(e) The offenses and penalties prescribed in this section are separate from and in addition to those prescribed in sections 1503, 1504, and 1505 of this title. (Added Pub. L. 87-849, $ 1(a), Oct. 23, 1962, 76 Stat. 1119, and amended Pub. L. 91-405, title II, $ 204(d)(1), Sept. 22, 1970, 84 Stat. 853; Pub. L. 99-646, § 46(a)-(l), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3601-3604.)

1986—Pub. L. 99-646, § 46(1), provided for alignment of margins of each subsection, paragraph, and subparagraph of this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-646, $ 46(a), substituted "section—" for "section:", designated provision defining "public official” as par. (1), inserted "the term" after (1)", and substituted "Delegate" for “Delegate from the District of Columbia", "after such official has qualified" for "after he has qualified”, and “juror;" for “juror; and”; designated provision defining “person who has been selected to be a public official” as par. (2), inserted "the term" after “(2)", and substituted "such person" for "he"; and designated provision defining “official act" as par. (3), inserted “the term" after “(3)", and substituted "in such official's official capacity, or in such official's" for "in his official capacity, or in his".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-646, § 46(b)(1), which directed that subsec. (b) be amended by substituting “(b) Whoever

(1) directly" for “(b) Whoever directly”, was executed by making the substitution for "(b) Whoever, directly" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 99-646, § 46(e)(5), redesignated the undesignated par. which followed former subsec. (e) as concluding par. of subsec. (b) and substituted "shall be fined not more than" for "Shall be fined not more than $20,000 or” and “thing of value," for "thing of value, whichever is greater,".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99-646, § 46(b), redesignated former subsec. (b) as par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, and realigned their margins, and in subpar. (C) substituted "the lawful duty of such official or person;" for “his lawful duty; or”, which was executed by making the substitution for "his lawful duty, or” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99-646, $ 46(0), redesignated former subsec. (c) as par. (2), struck out "Whoever," before "being”, substituted "corruptly demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept any. thing of value personally" for "corruptly asks, demands, exacts, solicits, seeks, accepts, receives, or agrees to receive anything of value for himself”, redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, and realigned their margins, in subpar. (A) substituted "the performance” for “his performance" and struck out "or" after "act;", and in subpar. (C) substituted "the official duty of such official or person;" for “his official duty; or”.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99-646, § 46(d), redesignated former subsec. (d) as par. (3) and substituted "directly" for "Whoever, directly" and "therefrom;" for “therefrom; or”.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99-646, $ 46(e), redesignated former subsec. (e) as par. (4), substituted "directly" for "Whoever, directly", "demands, seeks, receives, accepts, or agrees to receive or accept anything of value personally" for "asks, demands, exacts, solicits, seeks, accepts, receives, or agrees to receive anything of value for himself”, “in testimony" for "in his testimony", and "therefrom;" for "therefrom-".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-646, $ 46(f), (g)(1), (h)(1), (i)(1), redesignated former subsecs. (f) to (i) as subsec.

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