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553. 554. 554a 555. 556.

556a 556b 557. 558. 559. 560. 561 562. 562a 563. 564.

654.
655
656.
657.
658.
659..
660.
661.
662..
662a
662b
662c.
662d
662e.
663..
664.
665.
666, 667
668.
669-676

565. 566.

567. 568. 569. 570. 571-573 574. 575. 576. 576a 576b-576d 581.. 581a, 581b 582. 583. 584. 585

586.

3236
Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(f).
Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6.
Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 7(a).
Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 6(d),

52(a). 3288, 3289 Rep. Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 8, 13, 14. Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 7. Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 7. Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 7. Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 12(b)(5). 3432 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 10. 3005 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 11,

12(b)(3). Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 31(c). Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 31(a),

(b). 1111 3570 3565 3612 Rep. 3241 3059 3401 3402 3401 Rep. 3281 3282 3290 3283 T. 26 (I.R.C. 1939) Š 3748(a)

(See T. 26 (I.R.C. 1986)

$ 6531) T. 26 (I.R.C. 1939) $3748(b)

(See T. 26 (I.R.C. 1986)

$ 6531) 3288 3289 3288, 3289 Rep. 3287 3041 Rep. Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 5(a). 3045 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 4, 5. 3141 3144 3142 3143 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 46(1)(1),

(2). 3047 4084 3049 3012 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 41. 3105 3109 Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 41. Rep. 2231 1621 2235 2234 5 Rep. 3569 T. 46 887, 8 (See Rev. T. 46

Table) T. 28 $ 1822 3611 3617 3616 3184 3185 3186

TABLE SHOWING DISPOSITION OF ALL SECTIONS OF

FORMER TITLE 18-Continued

Tille 18
Former Sections

Tille 18
New Sections

3188
3190
3191
3189
3181
3192
3051, 3193
752, 1502
3182, 3195
5001
3042
752, 3183, 3195
3187, 3195
755
3194
Rep.
755
Rep.
3195, 3498
D.C. Code, $$ 23-701, 23-702,

23-705
Rep. See Cr. Proc. R. 37.
3731
Rep.
3771
3772
3771, 3772
Rep.
4086
Rep.
4007
Rep.
4006
D.C. Code, & 24-424
D.C. Code $ 24-423
Rep.
436
3568
4161
4166
Rep.
4163, 4165
4202
Rep.
4203, 4204
4203
4164
4205
4206
4207
Rep.
4281
Rep.
3570
4201
Rep.
4205
3651
3653
3654
T. 28 $ 604
3655
3656
T. 28 $$ 1495, 2513
T. 28 & 2513
4085
4001
Rep.
4122
4125
4122, 4123
4126
4124
4162
Rep.
4121
4122
4126
4127
4128
Elim.
Rep.
4281

681. 682. 683. 687 688. 689. 691. 692.. 693-700 701.. 702. 703. 704. 704a 705-707 708. 709 709a 710, 710a 711. 712, 712a 713. 714. 715. 716. 716a 716b 717. 718 719. 720. 721 722. 723. 723a 723b 723c. 724. 725. 726. 726-1. 726a. 727. 728. 729 730-732 733-733b 741.. 742-744 744a 744b 744c. 7440-7441 7448 744h 744h-1 7441, 744). 744k 7441 744m 744n 7440-744r 745. 746

587 588. 589. 590. 590a 591 592. 593. 594. 595 596, 597 598. 599 600 601.

602. 603 604. 605. 611-616 617. 618, 619 620-626 627. 628. 629. 630. 631 632. 633. 641 642, 643

644. 645. 646. 647.. 651.. 652..

653

TABLE SHOWING DISPOSITION OF ALL SECTIONS OF

FORMER TITLE 18–Continued

EXISTING RIGHTS OR LIABILITIES Section 21 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 862 provided in part that any right or liabilities now exist ing under repealed sections or parts thereof shall not be affected by the repeal.

Title 18 Former Sections

Title 18 New Sections

746a 746b 747-749 750.

REPEALED, TRANSFERRED, AND OMITTED SECTIONS All former sections of Title 18 were repealed, trans ferred to other titles, or omitted by said act June 25 1948, except for sections 595, 644, 726-1, 726a, 729, 730 and 732 which were repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch 646, 62 Stat. 687, the act revising and codifying Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, into positive law

751, 752 753. 753a 753b 753c 753d 753e. 7531. 7538 753h 7531 753) 753k 754. 761. 762.. 763-776, 791-801, 811-815 816. 817-819, 831-840. 851. 852. 853-855 871-875 876. 877. 878... 879, 880, 901-906 907. 908. 909. 910. 911, 912 921. 922. 923. 924. 925. 926. 927. 928 929.

4282 4283 Rep. T. 5 $ 678b (See Rev. T. 5

Table) 4005 4041 4042 4002, 4042 4003 4009 4001 4082, 4083 4008 751 752, 1072 1791 3050 4004 Rep. 4083 Rep. 4321 Rep. 4125 Rep. 4125 Rep. 4241 4242 4243 Rep. 4081 1791 751 752, 1072 Rep. 5031 5032, 5033 5033 5034 5035 5036 5037 Elim. Rep.

TITLE REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This title is referred to in title 8 sections 1160, 1255a, 1324, 1326; title 15 section 1245; title 16 sections 256b, 590n, 668dd, 3373, 3375, 4224, 4306; title 20 section 1221e-1; title 21 sections 333, 841, 844, 848, 858, 960; title 28 sections 535, 994; title 29 section 1136; title 33 section 2609; title 38 section 3405; title 39 section 2003; title 41 sections 54, 423; title 42 sections 290cc-33, 300h-2, 300i-1, 13955s, 6263, 9603, 9612; title 46 sections 12507, 31306, 31330; title 46 App. section 808; title 48 sections 1424-4, 1614, 1694; title 49 App. section 1472.

PART I-CRIMES Chap.

Sec. 1. General provisions

1 2. Aircraft and motor vehicles

31 3. Animals, birds, fish, and plants...

41 5. Arson ....

81 7. Assault...........

111 9. Bankruptcy

151 11. Bribery, graft, and conflicts of interest

201 12. Civil disorders

231 13. Civil rights.........

241 15.

Claims and services in matters affect-
ing government.............

281 17. Coins and currency

331 17A. Common carrier operation under the

influence of alcohol or drugs....... 341 Congressional, Cabinet, and Supreme

Court assassination, kidnaping, and
assault

351 19. Conspiracy.

371 21. Contempts..

401 23. Contracts

431 25. Counterfeiting and forgery.

471 27. Customs

541 29. Elections and political activities

591 31. Embezzlement and theft ........................

641 33. Emblems, insignia,' and names

701 35. Escape and rescue

751 37. Espionage and censorship ...

791 39. Explosives and combustibles 2

831 40. Importation, manufacture, distribution and storage of explosive materi.

841 41. Extortion and threats

871 42. Extortionate credit transactions

891 43. False personation.

911 44. Firearms

921 45. Foreign relations

951 46. Forfeiture

981 47. Fraud and false statements

1001 49. Fugitives from justice ..........

1071 50. Gambling

1081

18.

POSITIVE LAW; CITATION Section 1 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683, provided in part that: “Title 18 of the United States Code, entitled 'Crimes and Criminal Procedure', is hereby revised, codified and enacted into positive law, and may be cited as "Title 18, U.S.C., $ -.'

LEGISLATIVE CONSTRUCTION Section 19 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 862, provided that: “No inference of a legislative construction is to be drawn by reason of the chapter in Title 18. Crimes and Criminal Procedure, as set out in section 1 of this Act, in which any particular section is placed, nor by reason of the catchlines used in such title."

als .....

SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS Section 18 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 862, provided that: “If any part of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, as set out in section 1 of this Act, shall be held invalid the remainder shall not be affected thereby."

EFFECTIVE DATE Section 20 of act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 862, provided that the revision of this title shall be effective Sept. 1, 1948.

So in original. Does not conform to chapter heading. 2 Chapter heading amended by Pub. L. 86-710 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

Sec. 1091 1111 1151 1201 1231 1261 1301 1341 1361 1381

1421 1461 1501 1541 1581 1621 1651 1691

Chap. 50A. Genocide 51. Homicide... 53. Indians 55. Kidnaping 57. Labor... 59. Liquor traffic............................................ 61. Lotteries........ 63. Mail fraud............. 65. Malicious mischief ............ 67.

Military and Navy..... (68. Repealed.) 69. Nationality and citizenship 71. Obscenity ......... 73. Obstruction of justice 75. Passports and visas ................................ 77. Peonage and slavery 79. Perjury. 81. Piracy and privateering..................... 83. Postal service.......... 84. Presidential and Presidential staff as

sassination, kidnaping, and assault... 85. Prison-made goods 87. Prisons 89. Professions and occupations.... 91. Public lands ......................................... 93. Public officers and employees.. 95. Racketeering.. 96. Racketeer influenced and corrupt or

ganizations 97. Railroads (99. Repealed.) 101. Records and reports ...... 102. Riots................. 103. Robbery and burglary.. 105. Sabotage......... 107. Seamen and stowaways. 109.

Searches and seizures ........................ 109A. Sexual abuse ...... 110. Sexual exploitation of children 111. Shipping ........ 113. Stolen property 113A. Extraterritorial jurisdiction over ter

rorist acts abroad against United

States nationals ............ 114. Trafficking in Contraband Cigarettes 115. Treason, sedition, and subversive ac

1751 1761 1791 1821 1851 1901 1951

munications and Transactional Records Access” in item for chapter 121.

Pub. L. 100-606, $ 2(b), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3047, added item for chapter 50A.

1986—Pub. L. 99-646, § 87(c)(7), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3623, and Pub. L. 99-654, § 3(a)(7), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3663, amended analysis identically, striking out item for chapter 99 “Rape" and adding item for chapter 109A.

Pub. L. 99-628, $ 5(a)(2), Nov. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 3511, substituted “Transportation for illegal sexual activity and related crimes" for “White slave traffic" as item for chapter 117.

Pub. L. 99-570, title I, 88 1366(b), 1971(b), Oct, 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-39, 3207-59, added items for chapters 17A and 46.

Pub. L. 99-508, title I, § 101(c)(3), title II, $ 201(b), Oct. 21, 1986, 100 Stat. 1851, 1868, inserted "and electronic communications" in item for chapter 119 and added item for chapter 121.

Pub. L. 99-399, title XII, § 1202(b), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 897, added item for chapter 113A.

1982–Pub. L. 97-285, $$ 2(d), 4(d), Oct. 6, 1982, 96 Stat. 1219, 1220, substituted "Congressional, Cabinet, and Supreme Court assassination, kidnaping, and assault” for “Congressional assassination, kidnaping, and assault” as item for chapter 18, and inserted "and Presidential staff" after “Presidential" in item for chapter 84.

1978–Pub. L. 95-575, $ 2, Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2465, added item for chapter 114.

Pub. L. 95-225, § 2(b), Feb. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 8, added item for chapter 110.

1971–Pub. L. 91-644, title IV, § 17, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1891, added item for chapter 18.

1970—Pub. L. 91-513, title III, § 1101(b)(1)(B), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292, struck out item for chapter 68 “Narcotics”.

Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, & 901(b), title XI, $ 1102(b), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 947, 959, added items for chapters 40 and 96.

1968–Pub. L. 90-351, title IV, 8905, June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 234, added item for chapter 44.

Pub. L. 90-321, title II, $ 202(b), May 29, 1968, 82 Stat. 162, added item for chapter 42.

Pub. L. 90-284, title I, § 104(b), title X, $ 1002(b), Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 77, 92, added items for chapters 12 and 102.

1965—Pub. L. 89-141, § 3, Aug. 28, 1965, 79 Stat. 581, added item for chapter 84.

1956—Act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 825, $ 2(a), 70 Stat. 798, substituted “Animals, Birds, Fish, and Plants" for "Animals, Birds, and Fish" in item for chapter 3.

Act July 18, 1956, ch. 629, $ 202, 70 Stat. 575, added item for chapter 68.

Act July 14, 1956, ch. 595, $ 2,70 Stat. 540, added item for chapter 2.

1949—Act May 24, 1949, ch. 139, $1, 63 Stat. 89, struck out “constituting crimes" in item for chapter 21, and added item for chapter 50.

1961 1991

2071 2101 2111 2151 2191 2231 2241 2251 2271 2311

.......................................................

2331 2341

3

CHAPTER 1-GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Repealed.
Principals.
Accessory after the fact.
Misprision of felony.
United States defined.
Department and agency defined.
Special maritime and territorial jurisdiction

of the United States defined. Obligation or other security of the United

8.

tivities ........ 117. Transportation for illegal sexual activ.

ity and related crimes ...... 119. Wire and electronic communications

interception and interception of oral

communications 4 121. Stored wire and electronic communi.

cations and transactional records

2381

2421

2510

...............

access ...............................................•••••••••••

2701

AMENDMENTS
1988–Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, $ 7063, Nov. 18, 1988,
102 Stat. 4404, substituted “Bribery, graft, and con-
flicts of interest" for "Bribery and graft" in item for
chapter 11, substituted “carrier operation under the
influence of alcohol or drugs....341" for “Carrier Oper-
ation Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs” in
item for chapter 17A, substituted "abuse" for "Abuse",
in item for chapter 109A, struck out final period and
inserted “....2331" in item for chapter 113A, and substi-
tuted "wire and electronic communications and trans-
actional records access" for "Wire and Electronic Com-

States defined.
Vessel of the United States defined.
Interstate commerce and foreign commerce

defined.
Foreign government defined.
United States Postal Service defined.

9.
10.

. So in original. First word only of item should be capitalized.

• Editorially supplied. Chapter 119 added by Pub. L. 90-351 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

11.
12.

[blocks in formation]

SENATE REVISION AMENDMENT In the analysis of sections under this chapter heading, a new item, “14. Applicability to Canal Zone.”, was inserted by Senate amendment, to follow underneath item 13, inasmuch as a new section 14, with such a catchline, was inserted, by Senate amendment, in this chapter. See Senate Report No. 1620, amendments Nos. 1 and 3, 80th Cong.

AMENDMENTS 1987-Pub. L. 100-185, $ 4(b), Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279, added item 19.

1986–Pub. L. 99-646, $$ 34(b), 38(b), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3599, renumbered item 20 as 17 and added item 18.

1984–Pub. L. 98-473, title II, 88 218(b), 402(b), 1001(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027, 2057, 2136, substituted "Repealed” for “Offenses classified" in item 1 and added items 16 and 20.

1970—Pub. L. 91-375, 8 6(1)(1), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 777, inserted "United States" before "Postal Service" in item 12.

1962–Pub. L. 87-845, $ 3(b), Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 698, inserted "; definition" in item 14.

1958–Pub. L. 85-921, $ 4, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1771, added item 15.

such programs is desirable to develop and administe them most effectively; and

WHEREAS the Attorney General, as the chief lar officer of the Federal Government, is charged with the responsibility for all prosecutions for violations o the Federal criminal statutes and is authorized under the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 (79 Stat 828) (formerly set out as a note preceding section 300 of this title) to cooperate with and assist State, local or other public or private agencies in matters relating to law enforcement organization, techniques and prac tices, and the prevention and control of crime.

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in the President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

SECTION 1. The Attorney General is hereby designat ed to facilitate and coordinate (1) the criminal law en forcement activities and crime prevention programs o all Federal departments and agencies, and (2) the activities of such departments, and agencies relating to the development and implementation of Federal pro grams which are designed, in whole or in substantia part, to assist State and local law enforcement agen cies and crime prevention activities. The Attorney General may promulgate such rules and regulations and take such actions as he shall deem necessary or appropriate to carry out his functions under this Order.

SEC. 2. Each Federal department and agency is directed to cooperate with the Attorney General in the performance of his functions under this Order and shall, to the extent permitted by law and within the limits of available funds, furnish him such reports, information, and assistance as he may request.

LYNDON B. JOHNSON.

EXECUTIVE ORDER No. 11534 Ex. Ord. No. 11534, June 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 8865, which related to the National Council on Organized Crime was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12110, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1069, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act in the Appen dix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employ ees.

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON REFORM OF FEDERAL

CRIMINAL LAWS Pub. L. 89-801, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1516, as amended by Pub. L. 91-39, July 8, 1969, 83 Stat. 44, provided for the establishment of the National Commission on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, its membership, duties, compensation of the members, the Director, and the staff of the Commission, established the Advisory Committee on Reform of Federal Criminal Laws, required the Commission to submit interim reports to the President and the Congress and to submit a final report within four years from Nov. 8, 1966, and fur. ther provided that the Commission shall cease to exist sixty days after the submission of the final report.

(8 1. Repealed. Pub. L. 98-473, title II, 8 218(a)(1), Oct.

12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2027]

EFFECTIVE DATE OF REPEAL; OFFENSES COMMITTED

PRIOR TO Nov. 1, 1987 Section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98-473, set out as an Ef fective Date note under section 3551 of this title, provided that the repeal of this section is effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such repeal. Prior to repeal, this section read as follows:

Ex. ORD. No. 11396. COORDINATION BY ATTORNEY GEN

ERAL OF FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIME PREVENTION PROGRAMS

Ex. Ord. No. 11396, Feb. 7, 1968, 33 F.R. 2689, provided:

WHEREAS the problem of crime in America today presents the Nation with a major challenge calling for maximum law enforcement efforts at every level of Government;

WHEREAS coordination of all Federal Criminal law enforcement activities and crime prevention programs is desirable in order to achieve more effective results;

WHEREAS the Federal Government has acknowledged the need to provide assistance to State and local law enforcement agencies in the development and administration of programs directed to the prevention and control of crime:

WHEREAS to provide such assistance the Congress has authorized various departments and agencies of the Federal Government to develop programs which may benefit State and local efforts directed at the prevention and control of crime, and the coordination of

$ 1. Offenses classified

Notwithstanding any Act of Congress to the contrary:

(1) Any offense punishable by death or imprisonment for a term exceeding one year is a felony.

(2) Any other offense is a misdemeanor.

(3) Any misdemeanor, the penalty for which, as set forth in the provision defining the offense, does not exceed imprisonment for a period of six months or a fine of not more than $5,000 for an individual and $10,000 for a person other than an individual, or

both, is a petty offense. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Oct. 30, 1984, Pub. L. 98-596, § 8, 98 Stat. 3138.)

SHORT TITLE OF 1988 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, $7011, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395, provided that: “This subtitle (subtitle B (88 7011 to 7096) of title VII of Pub. L. 100-690, see Tables for classification) may be cited as the 'Minor

So in original. Capitalization does not conform to section catchline.

and Technical Criminal Law Amendments Act of 1988'."

SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in section 1962 of this title; title 21 sections 848, 854; title 49 App. section 1473; title 50 section 422.

SHORT TITLE OF 1987 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 100-185, § 1, Dec. 11, 1987, 101 Stat. 1279, provided that: “This Act (enacting section 19 of this title, amending sections 18, 3013, 3559, 3571, 3572, 3573, 3611, 3612, and 3663 of this title and section 604 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and en acting provisions set out as notes under section 3611 of this title) may be cited as the 'Criminal Fine Improvements Act of 1987'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 99-646, § 1, Nov, 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3592, provided that: “This Act (see Tables for classification) may be cited as the 'Criminal Law and Procedure Technical Amendments Act of 1986'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1984 AMENDMENT Section 200 of title II (&$ 200-2304) of Pub. L. 98-473 provided that: “This title (see Tables for classification) may be cited as the 'Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984'.”

8 2. Principals

(a) Whoever commits an offense against the United States or aids, abets, counsels, com. mands, induces or procures its commission, is punishable as a principal.

(b) Whoever willfully causes an act to be done which if directly performed by him or another would be an offense against the United States, is punishable as a principal. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, $ 17b, 65 Stat. 717.)

8 3. Accessory after the fact

Whoever, knowing that an offense against the United States has been committed, receives, relieves, comforts or assists the offender in order to hinder or prevent his apprehension, trial or punishment, is an accessory after the fact.

Except as otherwise expressly provided by any Act of Congress, an accessory after the fact shall be imprisoned not more than one-half the maximum term of imprisonment or fined not more than one-half the maximum fine prescribed for the punishment of the principal, or both; or if the principal is punishable by life imprisonment or death, the accessory shall be imprisoned not more than ten years. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684; Nov. 10, 1986, Pub. L. 99-646, § 43, 100 Stat. 3601.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., $ 551 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 333, 35 Stat. 1152).

The first paragraph is new. It is based upon authority of Skelly v. United States (C. C. A. Okl. 1935, 76 F. 2d 483, certiorari denied, 1935, 55 S. Ct. 914, 295 U.S. 757, 79 L. Ed. 1699), where the court defined an accessory after the fact asone who knowing a felony to have been committed by another, receives, relieves, comforts, or assists the felon in order to hinder the felon's apprehension, trial, or punishmentand cited Jones' Blackstone, books 3 and 4, page 2204; U.S. v. Hartwell (Fed. Cas. No. 15,318); Albritton v. State (32 Fla. 358, 13 So. 955); State v. Davis (14 R. I. 281); Schleeter v. Commonwealth (218 Ky. 72, 290 S. W. 1075). (See also state v. Potter, 1942, 221 N. C. 153, 19 S. E. 2d 257; Hunter v. State, 1935, 128 Tex. Cr. R. 191, 79 S. W. 2d 855; State v. Wells, 1940, 195 La. 754, 197 So. 419.)

The second paragraph is from section 551 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed. Here only slight changes were made in phraseology.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., 8 550 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, § 332, 35 Stat. 1152).

Section 2(a) comprises section 550 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., without change except in minor matters of phraseology.

Section 2(b) is added to permit the deletion from many sections throughout the revision of such phrases as “causes or procures".

The section as revised makes clear the legislative intent to punish as a principal not only one who directly commits an offense and one who "aids, abets, counsels, commands, induces or procures" another to commit an offense, but also anyone who causes the doing of an act which if done by him directly would render him guilty of an offense against the United States.

It removes all doubt that one who puts in motion or assists in the illegal enterprise but causes the commission of an indispensable element of the offense by an innocent agent or instrumentality, is guilty as a principal even though he intentionally refrained from the direct act constituting the completed offense.

This accords with the following decisions: Rothenburg v. United States, 1918, 38 S. Ct. 18, 245 U.S. 480, 62 L. Ed. 414, and United States v. Hodorowicz, C. C. A. III. 1939, 105 F. 2d 218, certiorari denied, 60 S. Ct. 108, 308 U.S. 584, 84 L. Ed. 489. United States v. Giles, 1937, 57 S. Ct. 340, 300 U.S. 41, 81 L. Ed. 493, rehearing denied, 57 S. Ct. 505, 300 U.S. 687, 81 L. Ed. 888.

AMENDMENTS 1986–Pub. L. 99-646 inserted "life imprisonment or” in second par.

8 4. Misprision of felony

Whoever, having knowledge of the actual commission of a felony cognizable by a court of the United States, conceals and does not as soon as possible make known the same to some judge or other person in civil or military authority under the United States, shall be fined not more than $500 or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 684.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES Based on title 18, U.S.C. 1940 ed., $ 251 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch.321, 3146, 35 Stat. 1 Changes in phraseology only.

CROSS REFERENCES Concealing escaped prisoners, see section 1072 of this title.

AMENDMENTS 1951–Subsec. (a). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted “punishable as".

Subsec. (b). Act Oct. 31, 1951, inserted “willfully" before "causes”, and “or another" after “him", and substituted "is punishable as a principal” for “is also a principal and punishable as such".

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