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repeal it definitively as of January 1, 1981. It also for copies manufactured in Canada. Since wage standadopted an amendment further ameliorating the ards in Canada are substantially comparable to those effect of this temporary legislation on individual in the United States, the arguments for equal treatAmerican authors.
ment under the manufacturing clause are persuasive. In view of this decision, the detailed discussion of Limitations on Importation and Distribution of Copies section 601 that follows will cease to be of significance
Manufactured Abroad. The basic purpose of the tempoafter 1980.
rary manufacturing requirements of section 601, like Works Subject to the Manufacturing Requirement. The
that of the present manufacturing clause, is to induce scope of the manufacturing requirement, as set out in
the manufacture of an edition in the United States if subsections (a) and (b) of section 601, is considerably
more than a certain limited number of copies are to be more limited than that of present law. The require
distributed in this country. Subsection (a) therefore ments apply to "a work consisting preponderantly of
provides in general that "the importation into or nondramatic literary material that is in the English
public distribution in the United States” of copies not language and is protected under this title," and would
complying with the manufacturing clause is prohibitthus not extend to: dramatic, musical, pictorial, or
ed. Subsection (b) then sets out the exceptions to this graphic works; foreign-language, bilingual, or multilin
prohibition, and clause (2) of that subsection fixes the gual works; public domain material; or works consist
importation limit at 2,000 copies. ing preponderantly of material that is not subject to
Additional exceptions to the copies affected by the the manufacturing requirement. The term "literary material" does not connote any
manufacturing requirements are set out in clauses (3) criterion of literary merit or qualitative value; it in
through (7) of subsection (b). Clause (3) permits imcludes catalogs, directories and "similar materials."
portation of copies for governmental use, other than A work containing “nondramatic literary material
in schools, by the United States or by "any State or that is in the English language and is protected under
political subdivision of a State." Clause (4) allows imthis title," and also containing dramatic, musical, pic
portation for personal use of “no more than one copy torial, graphic, foreign-language, public domain, or
of any work at any one time," and also exempts copies other material that is not subject to the manufactur
in the baggage of persons arriving from abroad and ing requirement, or any combination of these, is not
copies intended for the library collection of nonprofit considered to consist “preponderantly” of the copy
scholarly, educational, or religious organizations. right-protected nondramatic English-language literary
Braille copies are completely exempted under clause material unless such material exceeds the exempted
(5), and clause (6) permits the public distribution in material in importance. Thus, where the literary ma
the United States of copies allowed entry by the other terial in a work consists merely of a foreword or pref
clauses of that subsection. Clause (7) is a new excepace, and captions, headings, or brief descriptions or ex
tion, covering cases in which an individual American planations of pictorial, graphic or other nonliterary
author has, through choice or necessity, arranged for material, the manufacturing requirement does not
publication of his work by a foreign rather than a doapply to the work in whole or in part. In such case,
mestic publisher. the non-literary material clearly exceeds the literary
What Constitutes “Manufacture in the United States” or material in importance, and the entire work is free of
Canada. A difficult problem in the manufacturing the manufacturing requirement.
clause controversy involves the restrictions to be imOn the other hand, if the copyright-protected non
posed on foreign typesetting or composition. Under dramatic English-language literary material in the
what they regard as a loophole in the present law, a work exceeds the other material in importance, then
number of publishers have for years been having their the manufacturing requirement applies. For example,
manuscripts set in type abroad, importing "reproduca work containing pictorial, graphic, or other non-lit
tion proofs," and then printing their books from offset erary material is subject to the manufacturing re
plates "by lithographic process * • . wholly performed quirement if the non-literary material merely illus
in the United States." The language of the statute on trates a textual narrative or exposition, regardless of
this point is ambiguous and, although the publishers' the relative amount of space occupied by each kind of
practice has received some support from the Copy. material. In such a case, the narrative or exposition
right Office, there is a question as to whether or not it comprising the literary material plainly exceeds in im
violates the manufacturing requirements. portance the non-literary material in the work. How
In general the book publishers have opposed any ever, even though such a work is subject to the manu
definition of domestic manufacture that would close facturing requirement, only the portions consisting of the "repro proof" loophole or that would interfere copyrighted non-dramatic literary material in English
with their use of new techniques of book production, are required to be manufactured in the United States
including use of imported computer tapes for composior Canada. The illustrations may be manufactured
tion here. This problem was the focal point of a comelsewhere without affecting their copyright status. promise agreement between representatives of the
Under section 601(b)(1) works by American nationals book publishers and authors on the one side and of tydomiciled abroad for at least a year would be exempt pographical firms and printing trades unions on the ed. The manufacturing requirement would generally other, and the bill embodies this compromise as a reaapply only to works by American authors domiciled sonable solution to the problem. here, and then only if none of the co-authors of the Under subsection (c) the manufacturing requirement work are foreign.
is confined to the following processes: (1) Typesetting In order to make clear the application of the for and platemaking, “where the copies are printed directeign-author exemption to "works made for hire"-of ly from type that has been set, or directly from plates which the employer or other person for whom the made from such type"; (2) the making of plates, work was prepared is considered the "author" for "where the making of plates by a lithographic or phocopyright purposes-section 601(b)(1) provides that toengraving process is a final or intermediate step prethe exemption does not apply unless a substantial part ceding the printing of the copies"; and (3) in all cases, of the work was prepared for an employer or other the "printing or other final process of producing mulperson who is not a national or domiciliary of the tiple copies and any binding of the copies." Under the United States, or a domestic corporation or enterprise. subsection there would be nothing to prevent the imThe reference to "a domestic corporation or enter portation of reproduction proofs, however they were prise" is intended to include a subsidiary formed by prepared, as long as the plates from which the copies the domestic corporation or enterprise primarily for are printed are made here and are not themselves imthe purpose of obtaining the exemption.
ported. Similarly, the importation of computer tapes The provision adopts a proposal put forward by vari. from which plates can be prepared here would be perous segments of both the United States and the Cana- mitted. However, regardless of the process involved, dian printing industries, recommending an exemption the actual duplication of multiple copies, together
with any binding, are required to be done in the United States or Canada.
Effect of Noncompliance with Manufacturing Requirement. Subsection (d) of section 601 makes clear that compliance with the manufacturing requirements no longer constitutes a condition of copyright with respect to reproduction and the distribution of copies. The bill does away with the special "ad interim" time limits and registration requirements of the present law and, even if copies are imported or distributed in violation of the section, there would be no effect on the copy. right owner's right to make and distribute phonorecords of the work, to make derivative works including dramatizations and motion pictures, and to perform or display the work publicly. Even the rights to reproduce and distribute copies are not lost in cases of violation, although they are limited as against certain infringers.
Subsection (d) provides a complete defense in any civil action or criminal proceeding for infringement of the exclusive rights of reproduction or distribution of copies where, under certain circumstances, the defendant proves violation of the manufacturing requirements. The defense is limited to infringement of the "nondramatic literary material comprised in the work and any other parts of the work in which the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute copies are owned by the same person who owns such exclusive rights in the nondramatic literary material.” This means, for example, that the owner of copyright in photographs or illustrations published in a book copyrighted by someone else who would not be deprived of rights against an infringer who proves that there had been a violation of section 601,
Section 601(d) places the full burden for proving violation on the infringer. The infringer's defense must be based on proof that: (1) copies in violation of section 601 have been imported or publicly distributed in the United States “by or with the authority” of the copyright owner; and (2) that the infringing copies complied with the manufacturing requirements; and (3) that the infringement began before an authorized edition complying with the requirements had been registered. The third of these clauses of subsection (d) means, in effect, that a copyright owner can reinstate full exclusive rights by manufacturing an edition in the United States and making registration for it.
Subsection (e) requires the plaintiff in any infringement action involving publishing rights in material subject to the manufacturing clause to identify the manufacturers of the copies in his complaint. Correspondingly, section 409 would require the manufacturers to be identified in applications for registration covering published works subject to the requirements of section 601.
sive right to distribute copies or phonorecords under section 106, actionable under section 501. This subsection does not apply to
(1) importation of copies or phonorecords under the authority or for the use of the Government of the United States or of any State or political subdivision of a State, but not including copies or phonorecords for use in schools, or copies of any audiovisual work imported for purposes other than archival use;
(2) importation, for the private use of the importer and not for distribution, by any person with respect to no more than one copy or phonorecord of any one work at any one time, or by any person arriving from outside the United States with respect to copies or phonorecords forming part of such person's personal baggage; or
(3) importation by or for an organization operated for scholarly, educational, or religious purposes and not for private gain, with respect to no more than one copy of an audiovisual work solely for its archival purposes, and no more than five copies or phonorecords of any other work for its library lending or archival purposes, unless the importation of such copies or phonorecords is part of an activity consisting of systematic reproduction or distribution, engaged in by such organization in violation of the provisions of section 108(g)(2),
(b) In a case where the making of the copies or phonorecords would have constituted an infringement of copyright if this title had been applicable, their importation is prohibited. In a case where the copies or phonorecords were lawfully made, the United States Customs Service has no authority to prevent their importation unless the provisions of section 601 are applicable. In either case, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to prescribe, by regulation, a procedure under which any person claiming an interest in the copyright in a particular work may, upon payment of a specified fee, be entitled to notification by the Customs Service of the importation of articles that appear to be copies or phonorecords of the work. (Pub. L. 94-553, title I, § 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2589.)
1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97-215 substituted "1986" for "1982".
CROSS REFERENCES Application for copyright registration, names of persons or organizations who performed the processes specified in this section, see section 409 of this title.
Fee for issuance of import statement, see section 708 of this title.
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 409, 602, 708 of this title.
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
HOUSE REPORT NO. 94-1476 Scope of the Section. Section 602, which has nothing to do with the manufacturing requirements of section 601, deals with two separate situations: importation of "piratical" articles (that is, copies or phonorecords made without any authorization of the copyright owner), and unauthorized importation of copies or phonorecords that were lawfully made. The general approach of section 602 is to make unauthorized importation an act of infringement in both cases, but to permit the United States Customs Service to prohibit importation only of “piratical" articles.
Section 602(a) first states the general rule that unauthorized importation is an infringement merely if the copies or phonorecords "have been acquired outside the United States", but then enumerates three specific exceptions: (1) importation under the authority or for the use of a governmental body, but not in
8 602. Infringing importation of copies or phono
(a) Importation into the United States, without the authority of the owner of copyright under this title, of copies or phonorecords of a work that have been acquired outside the United States is an infringement of the exclu
(2) that the person seeking exclusion furnish proof, of a specified nature and in accordance with prescribed procedures, that the copyright in which such person claims an interest is valid and that the importation would violate the prohibition in section 602; the person seeking exclusion may also be required to post a surety bond for any injury that may result if the detention or exclusion of the articles proves to be unjustified.
(c) Articles imported in violation of the importation prohibitions of this title are subject to seizure and forfeiture in the same manner as property imported in violation of the customs revenue laws. Forfeited articles shall be de. stroyed as directed by the Secretary of the Treasury or the court, as the case may be; however, the articles may be returned to the country of export whenever it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury that the importer had no reasonable grounds for believing that his or her acts constituted a violation of law.
(Pub. L. 94-553, title I, § 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2590.)
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
cluding material for use in schools or copies of an audiovisual work imported for any purpose other than archival use; (2) importation for the private use of the importer of no more than one copy or phonorecord of a work at a time, or of articles in the personal baggage of travelers from abroad; or (3) importation by nonprofit organizations "operated for scholarly, educational, or religious purposes" of "no more than one copy of an audiovisual work solely for archival purposes, and no more than five copies or phonorecords of any other work for its library lending or archival purposes." The bill specifies that the third exception does not apply if the importation “is part of an activi. ty consisting of systematic reproduction or distribution, engaged in by such organization in violation of the provisions of section 108(g)(2)."
If none of the three exemptions applies, any unauthorized importer of copies or phonorecords acquired abroad could be sued for damages and enjoined from making any use of them, even before any public distribution in this country has taken place.
Importation of “Piratical” Copies. Section 602(b) retains the present statute's prohibition against importation of "piratical" copies or phonorecords—those whose making “would have constituted an infringement of copyright if this title has been applicable.” Thus, the Customs Service could exclude copies or phonorecords that were unlawful in the country where they were made; it could also exclude copies or phonorecords which, although made lawfully under the domestic law of that country, would have been unlawful if the U.S. copyright law could have been applied. A typical example would be a work by an American author which is in the public domain in a foreign country because that country does not have copyright relations with the United States; the making and publication of an authorized edition would be lawful in that country, but the Customs Service could prevent the importation of any copies of that edition.
Importation for Infringing Distribution. The second situation covered by section 602 is that where the copies or phonorecords were lawfully made but their distribution in the United States would infringe the U.S. copyright owner's exclusive rights. As already said, the mere act of importation in this situation would constitute an act of infringement and could be enjoined. However, in cases of this sort it would be impracticable for the United States Customs Service to attempt to enforce the importation prohibition, and section 602(b) provides that, unless a violation of the manufacturing requirements is also involved, the Service has no authority to prevent importation, “where the copies or phonorecords were lawfully made.” The subsection would authorize the establishment of a procedure under which copyright owners could arrange for the Customs Service to notify them wherever articles appearing to infringe their works are imported.
CROSS REFERENCES Importer of copies or phonorecords into the United States as infringer, see section 501 of this title.
SECTION REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This section is referred to in sections 501, 603 of this title.
HOUSE REPORT NO. 94-1476
The importation prohibitions of both sections 601 and 602 would be enforced under section 603, which is similar to section 109 of the statute now in effect (section 109 of former title 17). Subsection (a) would authorize the Secretary of the Treasury and the United States Postal Service to make regulations for this purpose, and subsection (c) provides for the disposition of excluded articles.
Subsection (b) of section 603 deals only with the prohibition against importation of "piratical" copies or phonorecords, and is aimed at solving problems that have arisen under the present statute. Since the United States Customs Service is often in no position to make determinations as to whether particular articles are "piratical,” section 603(b) would permit the Customs regulations to require the person seeking exclusion either to obtain a court order enjoining importation, or to furnish proof of his claim and to post bond.
REFERENCES IN TEXT
The customs revenue laws, referred to in subsec. (c), are classified generally to Title 19, Customs Duties.
CHAPTER 7-COPYRIGHT OFFICE
702. 703. 704.
8 603. Importation prohibitions: Enforcement and dis
position of excluded articles (a) The Secretary of the Treasury and the United States Postal Service shall separately or jointly make regulations for the enforcement of the provisions of this title prohibiting importation.
(b) These regulations may require, as a condition for the exclusion of articles under section 6024
(1) that the person seeking exclusion obtain a court order enjoining importation of the articles; or
The Copyright Office: General responsibil
ities and organization. Copyright Office regulations. Effective date of actions in Copyright Office. Retention and disposition of articles deposit
ed in Copyright Office. Copyright Office records: Preparation, main
tenance, public inspection, and searching. Copies of Copyright Office records. Copyright Office forms and publications. Copyright Office fees. Delay in delivery caused by disruption of
postal or other services. Reproductions for use of the blind and phys
ically handicapped: Voluntary licensing forms and procedures.
706. 707. 708. 709.
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
HOUSE REPORT NO. 94-1476
Chapter 7 entitled "Copyright Office," sets forth the administrative and housekeeping provisions of the bill.
Administrative Procedure Act. Under an amendment to section 701 adopted by the Committee, the Copyright Office is made fully subject to the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551 et seq. and 701 et seq.) with one exception: under section 706(b), reproduction and distribution of copyright deposit copies would be made under the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552] only to the extent permitted by the Copyright Office regulations.
Retention and Disposition of Deposited Articles. A recurring problem in the administration of the copyright law has been the need to reconcile the storage limitations of the Copyright Office with the continued value of deposits in identifying copyrighted works. Aside from its indisputable utility to future historians and scholars, a substantially complete collection of both published and unpublished deposits, other than those selected by the Library of Congress, would avoid the many difficulties encountered when copies needed for identification in connection with litigation or other purposes have been destroyed. The basic policy behind section 704 is that copyright deposits should be retained as long as possible, but that the Register of Copyrights and the Librarian of Congress should be empowered to dispose of them under appropriate safeguards when they decide that it has become necessary to do so.
Under subsection (a) of section 704, any copy, phonorecord, or identifying material deposited for registration, whether registered or not, becomes “the property of the United States Government." This means that the copyright owner or person who made the deposit cannot demand its return as a matter of right, even in rejection cases, although the provisions of section 407 and 408 are flexible enough to allow for special arrangements in exceptional cases. On the other hand, Government ownership of deposited articles under section 704(a) carries with it no privileges under the copyright itself; use of a deposited article in violation of the copyright owner's exclusive rights would be infringement.
With respect to published works, section 704(b) makes all deposits available to the Library of Congress “for its collections, or for exchanges or transfer to any other library''; where the work is unpublished, the Library is authorized to select any deposit for its own collections or for transfer to the National Archives of the United States or to a Federal records center.
Motion picture producers have expressed some concern lest the right to transfer copies of works, such as motion pictures, that have been published under rental, lease, or loan arrangements, might lead to abuse. However, the Library of Congress has not knowingly transferred works of this sort to other libraries in the past, and there is no reason to expect it to do so in the future.
The Committee added a new subsection (c) to section 704, under which the Register is authorized to make microfilm or other record copies of copyright deposits before transferring or otherwise disposing of them.
For deposits not selected by the Library, subsection (d) provides that they, or “identifying portions or reproductions of them," are to be retained under Copyright Office control "for the longest period considered practicable and desirable" by the Register and the Librarian. When and if they ultimately decide that retention of certain deposited articles is no longer “practicable and desirable," the Register and Librarian have joint discretion to order their "destruction or other disposition." Because of the unique value and irreplaceable nature of unpublished deposits, the subsection prohibits their intentional destruction during
their copyright term, unless a facsimile reproduction has been made.
Subsection (e) of section 704 establishes a new procedure under which a copyright owner can request retention of deposited material for the full term of copy. right. The Register of Copyrights is authorized to issue regulations prescribing the fees for this service and the "conditions under which such requests are to be made and granted."
Catalog of Copyright Entries. Section 707(a) of the bill retains the present statute's basis requirement that the Register compile and publish catalogs of all copy. right registrations at periodic intervals, but provides for “discretion to determine, on the basis of practicability and usefulness the form and frequency of publication of each particular part". This provision will in no way diminish the utility or value of the present catalogs, and the flexibility of approach, coupled with use of the new mechanical and electronic devices now becoming available, will avoid waste and result in a better product.
Copyright Office Fees. The schedule of fees set out in section 708 reflects a general increase in the fees of the Copyright Office from those established by the Congress in 1965. The basic fees are $10 for registration, $6 for renewal registration, $10 for recordation of documents and $10 per hour for searching. The section also contains new fee provisions needed because of new requirements or services established under the bill, and subsection (a)(11) authorizes the Register to fix additional fees, on the "basis of the cost of providing the service," "for any other special services requiring a substantial amount of time or expense." Subsection (b) makes clear that, except for the possibility of waivers in “occasional or isolated cases involving relatively small amounts," the Register is to charge fees for services rendered to other Government agencies.
Postal Interruptions. Section 709 authorizes the Register of Copyrights to issue regulation to permit the acceptance by the Copyright Office of documents which are delivered after the close of the prescribed period if the delay was caused by a general disruption or suspension of postal or other transportation or communications services.
Reproductions for the Blind and Handicapped. Section 710 directs the Register of Copyrights to establish by regulation forms and procedures by which the copyright owners of certain categories of works may voluntarily grant to the Library of Congress a license to reproduce and distribute copies or phonorecords of the work solely for the use of the blind and physically handicapped.
CHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This chapter is referred to in sections 908, 912 of this title.
8 701. The Copyright Office: General responsibilities
and organization (a) All administrative functions and duties under this title, except as otherwise specified, are the responsibility of the Register of Copyrights as director of the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress. The Register of Copyrights, together with the subordinate officers and employees of the Copyright Office, shall be appointed by the Librarian of Congress, and shall act under the Librarian's general direction and supervision.
(b) The Register of Copyrights shall adopt a seal to be used on and after January 1, 1978, to authenticate all certified documents issued by the Copyright Office.
(c) The Register of Copyrights shall make an annual report to the Librarian of Congress of the work and accomplishments of the Copy
right Office during the previous fiscal year. The annual report of the Register of Copyrights shall be published separately and as a part of the annual report of the Librarian of Congress.
(d) Except as provided by section 706(b) and the regulations issued thereunder, all actions taken by the Register of Copyrights under this title are subject to the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act of June 11, 1946, as amended (c. 324, 60 Stat. 237, title 5, United States Code, Chapter 5, Subchapter II and Chapter 7). (Pub. L. 94-553, title I, § 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2591.)
8 703. Effective date of actions in Copyright Office
In any case in which time limits are prescribed under this title for the performance of an action in the Copyright Office, and in which the last day of the prescribed period falls on a Saturday, Sunday, holiday, or other nonbusiness day within the District of Columbia or the Federal Government, the action may be taken on the next succeeding business day, and is effective as of the date when the period expired. (Pub. L. 94-553, title I, § 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2591.)
REFERENCES IN TEXT The Administrative Procedure Act of June 11, 1946, referred to in subsec. (d), was repealed and the provisions thereof were reenacted as subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89-554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 278.
NATIONAL COMMISSION ON NEW TECHNOLOGICAL USES
OF COPYRIGHTED WORKS Pub. L. 93-573, title II, $s 201-208, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1873-1875, as amended by Pub. L. 94-314, June 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 692; Pub. L. 95-146, Oct. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1226, created in the Library of Congress a National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works to study and compile data on (1) the reproduction and use of copyrighted works of authorship (A) in conjunction with automatic systems capable of storing, processing, retrieving, and transferring information, and (B) by various forms of machine reproduction, not including reproduction by or at the request of instructors for use in face-to-face teaching activities, and (2) the creation of new works by the application or intervention of such automatic systems or machine reproduction, required the Commission to submit a final report to the President and Congress on or before July 31, 1978, and provided that the Commission terminated the sixtieth day after submitting the final report.
8 704. Retention and disposition of articles deposited
in Copyright Office (a) Upon their deposit in the Copyright Office under sections 407 and 408, all copies, phonorecords, and identifying material, including those deposited in connection with claims that have been refused registration, are the property of the United States Government.
(b) In the case of published works, all copies, phonorecords, and identifying material deposited are available to the Library of Congress for its collections, or for exchange or transfer to any other library. In the case of unpublished works, the Library is entitled, under regulations that the Register of Copyrights shall prescribe, to select any deposits for its collections or for transfer to the National Archives of the United States or to a Federal records center, as defined in section 2901 of title 44.
(c) The Register of Copyrights is authorized, for specific or general categories of works, to make a facsimile reproduction of all or any part of the material deposited under section 408, and to make such reproduction a part of the Copyright Office records of the registration, before transferring such material to the Library of Congress as provided by subsection (b), or before destroying or otherwise disposing of such material as provided by subsection (d).
(d) Deposits not selected by the Library under subsection (b), or identifying portions or reproductions of them, shall be retained under the control of the Copyright Office, including retention in Government storage facilities, for the longest period considered practicable and desirable by the Register of Copyrights and the Librarian of Congress. After that period it is within the joint discretion of the Register and the Librarian to order their destruction or other disposition; but, in the case of unpublished works, no deposit shall be knowingly or intentionally destroyed or otherwise disposed of during its term of copyright unless a facsimile reproduction of the entire deposit has been made a part of the Copyright Office records as provided by subsection (c).
(e) The depositor of copies, phonorecords, or identifying material under section 408, or the copyright owner of record, may request retention, under the control of the Copyright Office, of one or more of such articles for the full term of copyright in the work. The Register of Copy. rights shall prescribe, by regulation, the conditions under which such requests are to be made and granted, and shall fix the fee to be charged
FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE Proof of official record, see rule 44, Title 28, Appendix, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
FEDERAL RULES OF EVIDENCE Hearsay exception, public records and reports, see rule 803, Title 28, Appendix, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Self-authentication, domestic public documents under seal, see rule 902.
CROSS REFERENCES Authenticated copies of records and papers of department or agency admissible, see section 1733 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
8 702. Copyright Office regulations
The Register of Copyrights is authorized to establish regulations not inconsistent with law for the administration of the functions and duties made the responsibility of the Register under this title. All regulations established by the Register under this title are subject to the approval of the Librarian of Congress. (Pub. L. 94-553, title I, $ 101, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2591.)