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from broken packages protected by yellow labels should also be removed. Acids or other corrosive liquids spilled from broken packages or tank cars should be covered with dry earth and the floor of cars, other than tank cars, should be thoroughly cleaned or renewed.

(c) Lighting equipment for wrecking outfits. All wrecking outfits should be equipped with portable electric lights.

(d) Special instructions for oil fires. If the fire can not be smothered by use of earth, steam, or wet blankets, effort should be concentrated on confining it and saving other property.

(e) Leaking tank car due to condition of bottom outlet. Should a tank car leak, due to breaking off of the bottom discharge outlet casting or its cap, leakage may be stopped, for example, by driving a tapered wooden plug into the opening, or by plugging opening with cloth or burlap pad held in place by a plank, or by raising the safety valve until all interior pressure is relieved and then removing the manhole cover and reseating the valve by manipulating the operating mechanism, as a shock sufficient to damage the bottom discharge outlet usually unseats valves of the type illustrated below.

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The manhole cover when removed for any purpose must be removed and replaced in accordance with the provisions of § 80.298 (c), (d), (m).

To ascertain whether the valve is properly seated, the valve-rod handle in the dome should be moved back and forth a few times, or the valve-rod wheel should be rotated. The following drawing indicates the general plan covering the bottom discharge outlet and valveoperating mechanism with which many of the tank cars now in service are equipped. There are, however, many cars in service and being built with valves that are opened and closed by means of a wheel on the valve rod instead of a handle as shown, and with the valve held positively on its seat by some mechanical means other than a spring.*+ [Pars. 704-708]

80.306 Removal of placards after unloading. When the lading requiring placards is removed from cars, other than tank cars, placards and car certificates must be removed by the party unloading the car.

When the lading requiring "Inflammable," "Corrosive Liquid," "Compressed Gas," or "Poisonous," placards has been removed from a tank car, the placards must be removed by the party unloading the car and the tank car forwarded without placards, or the placards must be replaced by four "Dangerous-Empty" placards as prescribed in § 80.307.*+ [Par. 709, as amended June 27, 1931]

80.307 "Dangerous - Empty" placard. "Dangerous - Empty" placards must measure 1034 inches on each side. The printing must be as shown in the cut in this paragraph, in black on strong white paper, or on tag board designated commercially as No. 2 tag board, and weighing 150 pounds per ream of sheets 24 inches by 36 inches, and having a resistance of not less than 60 pounds per square inch, Mullen test; or on metal.

(a) Reversible placards may be either of metal or tag board. If of metal, the corners must be rounded off to a radius of not more than three-eighths of an inch. The background of the reversible metal placard must be white and the lettering black as indicated herein.

The reverse side of such placards must bear the wording as prescribed for the "Inflammable" or "Corrosive Liquid," placard. (See § 80.278 (b) (1), (2).)

The wording on placards must be kept clearly legible.

(b) Paper placards must be securely pasted over the "Inflammable," "Corrosive Liquid," "Compressed Gas," or "Poisonous," placards pasted on metal placard boards provided for the purpose. Tag board placards must be securely tacked to wooden boards or inserted in holders provided for the purpose. Metal reversible placards must be adjusted so as to expose to view the side bearing the wording prescribed herein.** [Par. 710]

*For statutory citation, see note to § 80.1. †for source citation, see note to § 80.250.

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NOTE: The words "Keep lights and fires away" and "Inflammable or poisonous vapor" may be omitted from placards attached to tank cars which previously contained alkaline corrosive liquids or corrosive liquids which do not react with the metal wall or lining of the tank to form an inflammable or poisonous gas.

80.308 Handling by electric railways and motor cars. (a) Dangerous explosives as specified in § 80.268 (a) (1) must not be transported in any self-propelled car operated by electric or other motive power, if such car is carrying passengers.

(b) Dangerous articles other than explosives (see §§ 80. 106 (b), 80.130 (c), 80.150 (b), 80.170 (b), 80.191), and the less dangerous and relatively safe explosives (see § 80.268 (a) (2), (3)), when transported in self-propelled motor cars, must be carried in a compartment of such car in which there shall be no electrically operated apparatus, or electric circuits, other than circuits in conduits properly installed.

(c) When the motor car is used as a freight or baggage car and not as a passenger car, not more than 500 pounds net of explosives, or exceeding 5,000 blasting caps or electric blasting caps, may be transported. Blasting caps in any quantity must not be carried in

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the same car with high explosives. The explosives must be placed in a "magazine" box made of sound lumber not less than 1 inch thick, covered on the exterior with metal, and provided with strong handles. This box must be plainly stenciled on the top, sides, and ends, in letters not less than 2 inches high, "Explosives Dangerous-Handle Carefully.' The box must be provided with strong hinges and with a lock for keeping it securely closed. Vacant space in the box must be filled with a cushioning material such as sawdust or excelsior, and the box must be properly stayed to prevent movement within the car. (d) Explosives when transported in trailer or other cars must be securely blocked, braced, and stayed so as to prevent movement during transit, and other freight must not be permitted to fall on or slide against such shipments.

(e) Trailer cars or other cars not occupied by a representative of the carrier must bear the standard placards as prescribed herein.

(f) Explosives and other dangerous articles must not be loaded and transported together, except as permitted by the loading chart, Part 73.

(g) All the requirements of the regulations in Parts 72-82 as to packing, marking, labeling, description, certification and waybilling, must be complied with for all shipments of explosives or other dangerous articles transported by electric railways or other selfpropelled motor car lines engaged in interstate or foreign commerce.** [Pars. 711-717]


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Regulations applying more particularly to the carriers of explosives and other dangerous articles by express; regulations for handling

81.100 Handling packages, care used. 81.101 Loading into passenger carrying trains, poisons not in messenger cars when practicable. 81.102 Express or baggage cars in freight trains; placards.

81.81 List; shipment of articles not 81.103 Carrier must see that regula


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Shipping container specifications: See Part 72.

Bureau of Customs, Department of the Treasury: See Customs Duties, 19 CFR Chapter I.

Section 81.0 Dangerous articles list (express).

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