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PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION
The first edition of "The Immigration Problem," of which the second was a direct reprint, drew largely from the first printing in pamphlet form of the "Abstract of the Report of the United States Immigration Commission." When the Immigration Commission's report was collected into volumes it was revised and numerous changes were made in many of the tables, altho none affected in any way the conclusions of the Commission.
In this, the third edition of "The Immigration Problem," every figure taken from the Immigration Commission's Report has been carefully compared with the final form of that Report. Efforts have also been made to bring the book up to date in all important particulars by using freely the results of the United States Census of 1910, which had not appeared at the time of the first edition, and also the latest Reports of the United States Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization. The late literature of private publishers on this subject has also been noted, so as to see where it was advisable to add new data or to complete arguments on any of the points considered.
In making this revision, some of the chapters have been completely rearranged; others have been cut in some places; still others have been largely supplemented. To the appendices a number of new tables have been added, with the thought that the book should furnish enough material to become the standard compact work of reference on this subject, which is sure to be of vital importance for years to come. Attention
is called particularly to this feature of the book. There should be noted also the colored diagram taken from the last Report, 1912, of the Bureau of Immigration, which gives by races, in very compact form, the statistics of immigration into the United States from 1820 to date.
Altho the Reports of the Immigration Commission -especially, and naturally, the abstracts-form the chief basic material for this work, in a good many instances facts are given or opinions are stated for which no specific authority is cited. Both authors of the book themselves worked for four years directly upon this investigation; and in consequence they have felt justified in giving facts on their own authority which have not elsewhere appeared in print.
It has not been possible in every case to give credit to all the individuals taking part in collecting or preparing material for the Immigration Commission on which some of the chapters are largely based. Both authors had an active part in directing the work. In a number of cases special credit has been given at the beginning of a chapter to the experts of the Commission who were especially active in collecting or preparing material. Besides those should be mentioned Dr. Joseph A. Hill, who supervised the work on occupations and the fecundity of immigrant women; Professor H. A. Millis, who had immediate charge of the investigations on the Pacific Coast; Dr. E. A. Goldenweiser, who had special charge of the investigation of congestion in large cities; and W. W. Husband, secretary, and F. C. Croxton, chief statistician, who had general supervision of the work of the Commission.
In the Report of the Immigration Commission, due credit is given to the experts doing special work, many
of whom, on account of their number, it would not be practicable to enumerate here, but whose work has been freely used.
While every effort has been made to secure accuracy, it is quite possible, of course, that, in attempting to give in brief form so many details of information, errors may have crept in. The authors will consider it a favor if their attention can be called to any such errors.
Mrs. Franklin W. Edgerton, besides reading all the proof, has rendered especial service in comparing and checking up carefully all statistical material, besides preparing the index and furnishing valuable suggestions throughout. The authors wish to acknowledge to her their special indebtedness.
J. W. J. W. J. L.
PREFACE TO FOURTH EDITION
In preparing this edition the text has been carefully revised and all available data inserted so as to bring the discussion of the immigration problem completely up to date. Similar changes with the same object in view have been made in the appendices. Grateful acknowledgment of the care taken in securing and inserting the data is due to Mr. Rufus D. Smith of New York University.
The chapter on the existing immigration law of 1917 has been prepared by Mr. W. W. Husband, Secretary of the former United States Immigration Commission.
The complete text of the recent Immigration Bill of February 5, 1917 which was enacted by the 64th Congress has been added to the appendices; also a statement of the comprehensive Immigration Policy and Program of Dr. Sidney H. Gulick.
The colored diagram which gives by countries and in very compact form the statistics of immigration into the United States from 1820 to the end of the fiscal year, June 30, 1914, has been taken from the reports of the Bureau of Immigration, United States Department of Labor. Appendix 39, giving figures of immigration by countries for the first two years of the war, is also from the same source.
The map showing the Asiatic Zone described in Section 3 of the Immigration Act, the natives of which are excluded from the United States with certain exceptions, has also been selected from a Bulletin of