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Religious and Political Refugees
7. Contract Labor and Induced Immigration
8. Overcoming a Supreme Court Decision
Bill to Regulate the Immigration of Aliens to
and the Residence of Aliens in the United
States Passed by Congress, February 5, 1917. 408
Visits Abroad Made by Foreign-born Male
Occupations Abroad of Foreign-born Male
Congestion in Industrial Localities
Weekly Earnings of Workers According to Sex,
Weekly and Daily Earnings of Industrial
Family Income of Industrial Workers
Sources of Family Income of Industrial Work-
Period of Residence in the United States of
Foreign-born Industrial Workers
Affiliation with Trade-Unions of Foreign-born
Contract Laborers Debarred and Deported . 550
Statistical Review of Immigration .
Sex, Age, and Length of Residence of Emigrant
Aliens Debarred and Deported, 1892-1917
Sex, Age, Literacy, and Financial Condition of
Aliens Admitted During the Fiscal Year 1912 558
Immigration to Canada. .
Distribution of Aliens by Federal Bureau of Im-
Nativity and Country of Birth of Farmers in the
United States by Geographical Divisions. 568
Nativity of the White Population of the United
Per Cent. Distribution of the Population in 1910
by Class and by Geographic Division
Nativity and Parentage of Population of Cities
of 100,000 or More in the United States, 1900
Number and Per Cent. of Foreign-born Popula-
tion of the United States, According to Geo-
graphical Origin and Country of Birth, 1910. 577
Foreign-born Population of the United States by
Principal Countries of Birth, 1900 and 1910
Foreign-born Population by Country of Birth,
Mother Tongue of White Persons in United
States Born in Germany, Austria, Hungary
Foreign-born White Stock in United States by
Country of Origin, 1900 and 1910.
Per Cent. Distribution of the Foreign-born Popu-
lation of the United States by Country of
Birth, by Geographical Divisions, 1900 and
Per Cent. of Foreign and Native Population Re-
siding in the Urban and Rural Communities,
by Geographical Divisions and Country of
Foreign-born Population of the United States, by
Geographical Divisions and States, 1910 . 585
Distribution of the Foreign-born Population of
the United States Which Has Arrived Since
January 1, 1901, by Divisions and States. . 586
School Attendance of Children in the United
States, 6 Years of Age or Over, 1909-1910, by
Age, Groups, Nativity, Race, and Parentage. 588
School Attendance of Children in the United
States, by Age, Groups, Nativity, Parentage,
Immigration by Countries for Fiscal Years End-
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
The Immigration Problem is one of vital interest to the American people. President Roosevelt said that he considered it, with the possible exception of that of the conservation of the natural resources of the country, our most important problem. Upon our policy in dealing with the immigrants depend, to a very noteworthy extent, the progress and nature of the development of the nation economically, politically, and socially.
Heretofore the discussions on the subject of Immigration have of necessity been based very largely upon conjecture or the personal observation of individuals, and, far too often, upon prejudice. There has not been in existence trustworthy statistical material showing the effects of immigration. The United States Immigration Commission during the last four years has, however, gathered such material on a scale complete enough to enable a reasonably accurate judgment to be formed regarding the effects of immigration.
Both of the authors of this book were associated with the Commission from the beginning, and it has been their purpose to put into shape for the public, in such a manner that its significance may be readily understood by any thoughtful reader, the gist of the information collected in the forty-two volumes of the original material published by the Commission. Free use has been made of the data of the Commission and
of the special reports of its experts. The writers are not advocates, but interpreters of facts. They are not members of any league for the restriction of immigrants or for the encouragement of a more liberal policy toward immigration. Until about the time the investigation was completed, they had not formulated in their own minds any definite policy which they believed the Government should follow. Such opinions as they have exprest in this volume are the result of careful deliberation following study of the facts gathered by the Commission.
If any person is inclined to differ from the judgments in this volume, it is suggested that he examine carefully the data in an unprejudiced spirit before he condemns the conclusions. The attempt has been made to furnish in either the text or the appendices enough material to enable the reader to form an independent opinion. But, if the material presented seems insufficient, the reader is referred to the detailed reports of the Immigration Commission, where the original material is presented in such form that a careful student may reach an independent judgment. On a question of so profound importance to the welfare of the country it is hoped that many citizens will attempt through careful study to reach a sound conclusion.
The authors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to Miss Elizabeth A. Hyde for her editorial suggestions and her assistance in reading proofs.
J. W. J. W. J. L.