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aliens; Hungary 36,000 citizens to 219,000 aliens, and Rus sia 192,000 citizens to 545,000 aliens; while Italy gave us only 126,000 citizens to. 586,000 aliens.

How many of these aliens had been here less than five years and therefore were still ineligible for citizenship the table did not show. But, however that may be, it seems wholly undesirable that the proportion of aliens to naturalized citizens from any particular land should be so large as these figures show. Should not the rate of permissible immigration be such as to keep the naturalized citizens from any land always in a substantial majority?

These facts and considerations suggest the importance, on the one hand, of checking this inflow of vast numbers who maintain allegiance to foreign governments, and also, on the other hand, of promoting such education of aliens permanently residing in America as shall help them rapidly to acquire our ideas and ideals, and transform them speedily into true American citizens.

There is, however, another important set of factors bearing upon America's immigration problems, namely:

The New Orient

New Japan has already acquired the mechanical instruments, the political, economic and industrial methods, and the science, education, ideas and ideals of occidental civilization. New China is rapidly following in the footsteps of Japan. Both are increasingly self-conscious and insistent on courteous treatment and observance of treaties. They are asking with growing earnestness, for recognition on a basis of equality with nations of the West.

The great world-problem of the twentieth century is undoubtedly the problem of the contact of the East and the West. Whether it shall bring us weal or woe depends largely on the United States. Shall our Oriental policy be based on race pride, disdain and selfishness? Shall it be entirely devoid of sympathy? And shall we rely on brute force for carrying it through? Or shall we give justice, courtesy and a square deal,, refusing to be stamped by ignorance, illfounded suspicion and falsehood? Shall we "prepare" to maintain by our military might a policy of arrogant disregard of their needs and feelings, or shall we remove dangers

of conflict by a policy of friendly consideration and genuine helpfulness?

The New Oriental Policy

The New Orient renders obsolete and dangerous our nineteenth century Asiatic policy. Let us now promptly adopt a new policy; one that will provide, on the one hand, for the just demands of the Pacific Coast States to be protected from a swamping Asiatic immigration; and yet that also provides on the other hand for full courtesy of treatment and for complete freedom from race discrimination which is inevitably regarded as humiliating. The new policy should provide for observance of the spirit no less than of the wording of our treaties, and be thus in harmony with the principles of good neighborliness.

The New Immigration Policy

All this means that we need comprehensive immigration legislation dealing with the entire question in such a way as to conserve American institutions, protect American labor from dangerous economic competition, and promote intelligent and enduring friendliness between America and all the nations, East and West, because free from differential race


The Literacy Test

Restriction of immigration has been widely demanded in recent years. Three times Congress has passed a literacy test immigration bill. Three times has it been vetoed. But even if it became law, would it suitably and adequately regulate immigration? Would it avail in maintaining a wholesome proportion between the aliens and the naturalized? Moreover, a literacy test law could not wisely be applied to Asiatics, for it would admit millions.

Numerical Limitation

Do we not now need legislation, limiting immigration on a numerical basis? Should not the annual immigration be adapted to our economic conditions? And should not that limitation deal equally with all races? Should not our immigration legislation, moreover, also provide for the rapid education and Americanization of those who are admitted?


Such a policy and program constitutes one of the pressing needs of the times. Quite as important as military "preparedness" to resist attack is diplomatic and legislative "preparedness" to reduce tension and promote international friendship.

The following paragraphs present in barest outlines:


1. The Control of Immigration

Immigration from every land should be controlled, and, if excessive, it should be restricted. The principle of restriction should be applied equally to every land, and thus avoid differential race treatment.

2. Americanization the Principle of Control

The proven capacity for genuine Americanization on the part of those already here from any land should be the measure for the further immigration of that people. Newcomers make their first contact with America through those who speak their own language. The Americanization, therefore, of newcomers from any land depends largely on the influence of those already here from that land. The number of newcomers annually admissible from any land, therefore, should be closely dependent on the number of those from that land who, having been here five years or more, have actually become American citizens. These know the language, customs and ideals of both peoples, ours and theirs.

America should admit as immigrants only so many aliens from any land as she can Americanize.

3. The Proposed Restriction Law

Let, therefore, an immigration law be passed which provides that the maximum permissible annual immigration from any people shall be a definite per cent. (say 5) of those from that people who have already become naturalized citizens, together with their American-born children.

The grandchildren as a rule do not know their ancestral

language, and therefore do not aid particularly in the Americanization of newcomers.

The permissible annual immigration from the respective peoples, as calculated from the census of 1910, is given in the tables of the Appendix. They show that in general there would be no restriction on immigration from North Europe. The reverse, however, would be the case for the countries of South Europe. The permissible immigration from China and Japan would be less than that which has been coming in recent years. (See the charts pp. 8-9 and tables III and IV of the Appendix.)

Provision should be also made for the protection of all newcomers from ruthless exploitation and for their distribution, employment and rapid Americanization. To aid in the accomplishment of these ends, the Federal Government should establish

4. A Bureau of Registration

All aliens should register annually until they become American citizens, and should pay an annual registration fee, of say ten dollars. We need to know who the aliens are and where they live, and they need to know that we know these facts about them. A system of registration could be worked out in connection with a National Employment Bureau, as suggested by the late Professor Henderson, that would not involve police surveillance. This Bureau should be regarded as a method of friendly aid, not of hostile and suspicious control.

5. A Bureau for the Education of Aliens

This Bureau should set standards, prepare text-books, promote the establishment of night schools by States, cities and towns-which might receive Federal subsidies-and hold examinations. The education and the examinations should be free. Provision should be made for the reduction of the registration fee by, say one dollar, for every examination passed. The education should be simple and practical, avoiding merely academic proficiency. Let there be six examinations, three in English and one each in the History of the American People, in the Methods of our Government, local, State and Federal, and in the Ideals of Democracy. When

all the examinations have been passed there would still remain the annual registration fee of four dollars, so long as the individual chooses to remain an alien. There should also be

6. New Regulations for the Bureau of Naturalization

Citizenship should be granted only to those who have passed the required examinations provided by the Bureau of Alien Education and have maintained good behavior during the five years of probationary residence. The naturalization ceremony might well take the form of a dignified welcome service-say on a single day in the year-the Fourth of July, with appropriate welcome orations, banners, badges and banquets.

7. Citizenship for all Who Qualify, Regardless of Race

Eligibility to naturalization should be based upon personal qualifications of intelligence, knowledge and character. The mere fact of race should be neither a qualification nor a disqualification.

Such are the main outlines of the proposed Comprehensive and Constructive Program here offered for the solution of the entire immigration problem, Asiatic as well as European. For a more adequate understanding, however, of this general proposal we should consider

8. A Few Additional Details

(a) No change should be made in the schedule for maximum immigration between the census periods. With each new census a new schedule should be prepared, but it should not go into operation automatically. Congress should reconsider the whole matter once in ten years upon receiving the figures based upon the new census, and decide either to adopt the new schedule or some new percentage rate, or possibly to continue the same schedule for another decade.

(b) Provision should be made for certain excepted classes. Government officials, travelers and students would, of course, be admitted outside of the fixed schedule figures. Aliens who have already resided in America and taken out their first papers, or who have passed all the required examinations, should also doubtless be admitted freely, regardless of the

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