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taining some of the provisions objectionable to the President, he approved it on May 6, 1882. This law provided that all immigration of Chinese laborers, skilled or unskilled, should be suspended for a period of ten years.

During the next Congress, to prevent evasions of the law through the "possible interpretations of words 'merchants' and 'travelers,' together with the notorious capabilities of the lower classes of Chinese for perjury," the certificates of exempt classes were made more elaborate and the word "merchant" was defined to exclude hucksters, peddlers, and fishermen. The certificates were made the only evidence admissible to establish a right to reenter. These certificates also had to be verified by the United States diplomatic officer at the port of departure. This act was approved by the President.

In 1886, China of her own accord proposed to prohibit the emigration of her laborers to the United States, and also to prohibit the return of any laborers who had gone back to China. She asked that negotiations be entered into for a treaty embodying such provisions, and one was agreed to and signed by the representatives of the two countries on March 12, 1888.

The treaty as signed provided that Chinese laborers should be excluded for twenty years. No Chinese laborer returning to China was to be allowed to reenter the United States unless he left a wife, child, or parent, or property to the value of $1,000. To avail himself of this right he had to return within a year. Chinese subjects other than laborers had to obtain certificates of identification from consular representatives of the United States at ports of departure.

As in the earlier treaty, the Chinese already lawfully residing here were granted all the privileges of citizens of the most-favored nations. Finally, the indemnity fund of $276,619.75, which was asked for losses and injuries suffered by the Chinese in various anti-Chinese riots in the Pacific Coast States was included. Before ratifying it the Senate changed two articles of the treaty. By the first, all Chinese laborers not then in the United States, but who held return certificates under existing laws, were not to be allowed to enter. The other required the possession of the certificate of identification to insure entry.

No ratification of the treaty followed, however, and on receipt of unofficial reports that China had rejected it, Congress passed a bill prohibiting the coming to the United States of Chinese laborers. President Cleveland withheld his approval of the bill for some time, but finally, on the refusal of China to ratify the treaty unless the term of years was made shorter, and other conditions were changed, on October 1, 1888, he signed it. In his message accompanying the approval, President Cleveland justified his action, claiming that China's delay was a breach of the existing treaty, and such a breach as justified Congress in legislatively dealing with the matter.

On May 5, 1892, Senator Dolph, of Oregon, secured the passage of a bill providing that the act of May 6, 1882, should be continued in force for another ten years. All Chinese laborers within the United States were required to secure certificates within one year, and if any one was found without such certificate he was to be liable to deportation.

Shortly after the passage of that act and one of November 3, 1893, China asked for the opening of

negotiations looking to a new treaty. Negotiations were successful, and on December 8, 1894, a treaty was proclaimed which provided for the exclusion of all Chinese laborers for a term of ten years. Those going back to China were allowed to return here, providing they had a wife, child, or parent, or property worth $1,000 somewhere in the United States. Registration was still required. It practically covered the same grounds as existing legislation, except that the act of October 1, 1888, refusing to Chinese laborers the right to return, was repealed.

After the annexation of Hawaii, on July 7, 1898, Chinese immigration to these islands was declared to be regulated by the laws of the United States. On April 30, 1900, provision was made for the registering of all the Chinese in these islands, and Chinese living there were forbidden to enter continental United States.

The Chinese Exclusion Law of 1902

As the time came for the lapse of the period of exclusion provided by the act of 1892, interest in the exclusion laws again became intense, especially on the Pacific Coast. A Chinese minister, in a letter to the Secretary of State, dated December 10, 1901, brought the matter to the attention of the United States, "urging an adjustment of the questions involved more in harmony with the friendly relations of the two governments." On January 16, 1902, Senator Mitchell, of Oregon, introduced a bill to prohibit the coming of Chinese into the United States, and regulating their residence within her territories. A similar bill was introduced in the House by Mr. Kahn, of California. On March 26, 1902, the Com

mittee on Foreign Affairs reported Mr. Kahn's bill with a substitute. Several provisions of the bill were stricken out as there was some question as to their constitutionality. The committee proposed excluding all Chinese laborers, but wanted to avoid any discourtesy or annoyance to genuine merchants, students, etc., on the ground that this attitude was necessary in the interests of our commerce with China. It also struck out a clause forbidding the employment of Chinese on ships carrying the American flag on the Pacific Ocean, because of the injury that would accrue to American shipping. Following in the main the committee's recommendations, the bill passed the House. The clause relating to seamen, however, was restored and all laws were extended to the insular possessions.

In the Senate the Mitchell and Kahn bills were considered too severe, and before passing that body they were amended by providing that all existing laws be reenacted, and continue in force until a new treaty should be negotiated. Congress adopted the bill April 28, 1902, and the President approved it the following day.

The Chinese Exclusion Law of 1904

Upon the refusal of China to continue the treaty of 1894 after 1904, on April 27, 1904, Congress again reenacted, extending and continuing without modification, limitation or condition, all laws then in force in so far as they were not inconsistent with treaty obligations.

All legislation was extended to insular possessions, and Chinese immigration from these islands to

continental United States, or from one group to another, was prohibited, altho moving from island to island of the same group was allowed. Certificates of residence were also required in the insular possessions. This law of 1904 is still in force.

Legislation Relative to Japanese Laborers

During 1906 the question of Japanese immigration became acute, and the Pacific States demanded exclusion legislation for the Japanese of the same sort as existed for the Chinese. This was finally settled in the passport provision inserted in the immigration law of February 20, 1907. This provision authorized the President to refuse admission to any aliens making use of passports to the insular possessions, to the Canal Zone, or to any other country than the United States, in order to gain admission to the continental United States. The President, in his proclamation of March 14, 1907, availed himself of this provision, and excluded "Japanese or Korean laborers, skilled or unskilled, who have received passports to go to Mexico, Canada, or Hawaii, and come therefrom." To give this full force, an understanding with Japan was reached that the existing policy of discouraging the emigration of her subjects to this country should be continued. This agreement, by which the two governments cooperate to secure an effective enforcement of the regulation, contemplates that the Japanese Government shall issue passports to continental United States only to such of its subjects as are non-laborers, or are laborers who, in coming to the continent, seek to resume a formerly acquired domicile, to join a parent, wife, or children residing

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