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vania, with a population of about 10,000, the number, kind, membership and contributions of immigrant churches was as follows in 1909:

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In Johnstown, Pennsylvania, a large steel manufacturing community in Western Pennsylvania, the immigrant church situation in 1909 is shown in the table on page 121.

The same conditions relative to the character and membership of alien churches obtain in all sections of the country where recent immigrants have settled. In general, they have brought their church affiliations. from their native lands, or, in other words, their native churches have provided means for serving the recent immigrant in his new home.

It will be noted in the statement for Johnstown, Pennsylvania, that parochial schools are affiliated with the immigrant churches. This is also typical of the general situation. These schools offer, as a rule, both secular and religious instruction. A foreign language

is generally used in teaching, but in the greater number of schools instruction is also given in reading and writing English.

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* In Italian section.

In American section. Note.-All except those indicated otherwise are in the foreign section.

Fraternal and Other Organizations

A large number of fraternal and beneficial organizations also flourish in immigrant communities. Some of these societies are political and social in their objects, but by far the greater number are for the protection of their members against sickness or death. Their existence is usually closely bound up with some church to which the members belong. Nearly all of the immigrant benefit societies are conducted on the

assessment plan with certain variations. The common method of conducting the society is that of a mutual organization with a fixt payment or assessment for death or other contingencies. Usually the payment is a death benefit sufficient to cover funeral expenses.

As an illustration of the character of the various immigrant fraternal and other organizations the table on page 123 which sets forth the societies among the alien population of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, may be presented as typical. Similar organizations are to be found in other industrial localities and the situation in Johnstown may be said to be representative of the country as a whole.

Immigrant Business Establishments

Aliens of recent arrival in the United States, in the smaller industrial cities and towns as well as in the larger cities, are engaged in all branches of small business undertakings.

In some of the immigrant localities of recent origin, such as those in the different mining districts or in the comparatively recently established glass or steel manufacturing towns like Granite City, Illinois, large immigrant mercantile houses have been established to cater to the wants of the newcomers. They are usually a combination, consisting of a general store, saloon, banking and steamship agency, and rooming house, the upper rooms being used for the last-named purpose. Some of these establishments recently investigated by the Federal government represented capital investments ranging from $25,000 to $40,000. These mercantile houses, however, usually disappear after the


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Hungarian Benefit and formed Socisocial.


St. Laslo Magyar..

Benefit So


Polish Benefit

St. Mary's
ciety (fe-

Society (branch line).

Number of


50 50c. per month $5 per week sick-
and assess-
ness; $50 for
funeral ex-

Italian Frater- Italian.. Benefit..... 250 50c. a month.. $5 a week and nal Society.

doctor's attendance; funeral expenses.


month $5 per week sickness; $1 assessed from each member for funeral expenses.

Rothe Männer 50c. a month.. $5 a week sickBenefit So



100 None

St. Rocus Benefit and atian Society social.

50 25c. per month $2 per week sick


St. Joseph's 700 Assessment av- $5 per week sickBenefit Soeraging about ness; $1,000 at $30 per an



Do. 700 Assessment $25

Slavish Political....
Verhova y Magyar.. Benefit..

(Benefit, Life,
and Death




$2.50 per month $10 per week for 5 weeks sickness; $600 at death with 6 per cent. at end of 10 years.

St. 60 50c.

St. Nicho la Croatian 800
Croatian So-

50c. a


on an average
per annum...


50 25c. per month; $1.50
ment on death
of members..

50 800



ness; $60 for funeral expenses, each member con. tributing $1.

Assessment $5 per week sick$1.50, $2 per month, and $1 on death of every member 100 Assessment $1 $5 to $2 per month

ness; $800 at death, depending on the number of members. per week during sickness; funeral expenses and $800.


per sickness; funeral

week $25


penses, each member contributing 50c.

month; $5 per week sick

$1 assessment
death of




St. Stephen's Slovak.. Benefit.... 750 Assessment $5 per week for Benefit Soabout $25 per sickness;$1,000 ciety.



in case of death. None None. $1.35 a month $5 per week sickmen; 65c. for ness; $800 at death for both men and women; loss of eye or limb, $800.


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community which they serve has become firmly established, and, as a rule, immigrant business activities are confined to quite small establishments, restricted with some exceptions, as in the case of restaurants, fruit stands or shoe-shining parlors, to the sections of the cities and towns occupied by the alien population. The immigrant business man, by the mere fact that he is an alien, is placed at a decided advantage over native competitors, for the inhabitants of an immigrant community naturally patronize with one accord those of their countrymen who operate stores and shops.

There are no general statistics which afford an insight into the tendency of the different races to engage in business. Moreover, in any given community the proportion of certain races in business enterprises will be largely determined by the racial composition of the community. A few statements, however, as to the business situation in a number of representative industrial cities will throw a light on the general situation. The tabulation opposite shows the number of immigrants in business and the kind of business followed in Lackawanna City, a steel manufacturing locality of about 20,000 population near Buffalo, New York.

Another illustrative example may be taken from Steelton, also a steel manufacturing city of 18,000 population located near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. In 1909 there were 85 immigrant business establishments in this city with an approximate capital investment of $285,765. The number of immigrants in each specified business, by race, is shown in the table on page 125.

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