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$30,000. The lower floor is occupied by a saloon and two large stores. The rental from its rooms above the first floor; therefore, pays over 10 per cent on the money invested in the entire building, or, in other words, the income from the tenants pays more than the ordinary rate of return on the cost of the building, and leaves free of rent the saloon and store rooms, which are the most valuable part of the building for rental purposes.

From these illustrations, it seems clear that although the recent immigrant's per capita outgo for rent is small because he lives in a crowded condition, yet the rent he pays by groups or families is excessive, and yields an unusually large rate of return to his landlord.

COST AND MANNER OF LIVING OF REPRESENTATIVE FAMILIES AND

GROUPS OF MEN.

The following summarized facts will give a more detailed conception of the cost, manner, and standard of living, of the alien population of the community, classified according to races. The different methods, as well as the cost of living are brought out clearly in this way.

GROUP 1.-BULGARIAN (HUNGARY HOLLow). This group consists of sixteen men of Bulgarian race, living in a small frame one-story cottage, valued originally at about $1,500. The rooms are 10 by 12, 8 by 6, and 8 by 5 feet. The furniture consists of 5 double and 2 single beds, a stove worth about $3.50, a couple of tables and benches made out of some packing boxes, and a few plain chairs. The total value would be about $50. There is no separate kitchen or dining-room, and the cooking is done in the largest bedroom. The men live 4 to each room. The rent of the house is $16. Their living, exclusive of the rent, costs them on an average about $8 each per month. They do their own cooking and housekeeping, taking turns in doing it. They buy their coal and wood and pick up some along the railroad tracks. All the men are unskilled laborers and receive from $1.50 to $1.60 per day in the steel works. Twelve of the 16 are married, with wives abroad, and the majority are going back to Bulgaria. One speaks English. None have taken any steps toward naturalization.

GROUP 2.-BulGARIAN (HUNGARY HOLLow). This is a group of 16 Bulgarians living in a small cottage of 3 rooms. The rooms are the usual size, 1 large one about 10 by 12 feet, and 2 small ones about 5 by 8 and 6 by 8 feet. The cottage has a small unfenced yard. The rent is $14, and the men spend between $7 and $8 each per month for food. The furniture consists of 8 cots and iron beds, small stove, several chairs and homemade tables and benches, lamp, lantern, and simple cooking utensils. The total value is about $60. None of the rooms are carpeted. The house was in a condition of squalor, and very crowded, 5 to 6 men to

The men have been in the United States only seven months, and have had no work since their arrival. They had about $20 or $30 each when they came, but have now spent all their money and are supported by a local mercantile house. None speak English. . Fourteen of the 16 are married and have wives and families in Bulgaria. The majority state that they intend, if possible, to stay in the United States. They take turns cooking and housekeeping, and do their own washing.

GROUP 3.-BULGARIAN (HUNGARY Hollow).

This is a group of seventeen Bulgarians living in a one-story cottage

a of 4 rooms. Two of the rooms are about 8 by 10 feet and two are smaller. The cottage has a small yard with dilapidated fence, and the rooms are very crowded and dirty. The rent is $12 per month. The cost of living is from $7 to $8 per month in addition to rent. The men take turns cooking and housekeeping. They have been in the United States eight months. All of them are unskilled and have had little work since their arrival. Fifteen of the seventeen are married and have families in Bulgaria. None speak English. The furniture consists of seventeen cots, small stove and cooking utensils, and kerosene lamps. The total value is about $60. There is no separate dining room or kitchen. These men had $15 to $30 each when they arrived in the community. All this has been spent, and they are supported by occasional work and credit at mercantilé houses.

GROUP 4.-ALBANIAN (HUNGARY HOLLow).

a

This group of fourteen men from Albania, the only group of this race encountered, lives in a small one-story frame cottage of five rooms-four bedrooms and a small kitchen. They pay $14 per month rent, which includes a large lot (about 50 by 50 feet) which they have converted into a garden and have under cultivation. Their food costs them about $8 to $9 per month per man. The garden at the time of the investigation was just beginning to yield and they expected to procure all their vegetables from it. The furniture consists of iron beds and cots, two small stoves and one large one, worth together $15, a couple of lamps, a home-made table, and cooking utensils. There are photographs and lithographs on the walls. The total value of the furniture is about $150. The men live four to each room. The rooms in this cottage are larger than the average, and two of the bedrooms have two windows each. The men are cleanly in their housekeeping. They have been in the United States seven or eight months, but none speak English except a 14-year-old boy. All are unskilled and have had little work. The boy, who came to this country alone "to earn money," has worked in the steel works at $1.35 per day. Four of the men are married and have families in Albania, to which country they expect to return.

GROUP 5.-ARMENIAN FAMILY (CITY PROPER). This group, of man, wife, and sister-in-law, lives in a three-room frame cottage of one story. The man is naturalized and runs an Armenian coffee house in Hungary Hollow. His wife is an American woman. They pay $12.50 per month rent, and their food costs them about $10 per week. They value their furniture at $150.

Group 6.-ARMENIAN BOARDING House (HUNGARY HOLLOW).

This is an Armenian boarding house in Hungary Hollow containing thirty-five men. There are two men in each room. Each room has two cots or beds, a table and a chair. There are no carpets. The men pay $3.50 per week for rooms, light, heat, and board. Meals without rooms are $3 per week.

GROUP 7.—BULGARIAN (IMMIGRANT SECTION OF Town PROPER).

This group consists of man and wife, and five Bulgarian boarders, living in two rooms in a Macedonian tenement building over a saloon and grocery store. The rent of the rooms is $5 a month. The husband speaks a little English and is naturalized. He is 28 years old and is a bartender in a Macedonian saloon. The woman is 17 years old and has been four months in the United States. All the boarders sleep in one room. They pay $11 per month for room and board. The furniture is valued at $150, and includes beds, stoves, cooking utensils, and plain chairs and tables; no carpets. Each room, except the one used for cooking (an inside room), has two windows. The rooms and hallways are very dirty.

GROUP 8.—BULGARIAN (IMMIGRANT SECTION OF Town PROPER).

This family consists of man and wife, with neither boarders nor children. The man is 30 years old, has been in the United States eighteen months, and speaks no English. He expects to be naturalized and to remain in the United States. The woman is 28 years old. They were married in Bulgaria twelve years ago. At the time of the investigation they were living in one room in a Macedonian rooming house because the man was out of work. The rent was $4 per month. They formerly had two rooms in the same house and paid $5 rent. They cook, eat, sleep, and do laundry work in the one room. The furniture consists of bed, stove, homemade table, and some broken chairs, of which the total valuation is about $35. Exclusive of rent, the man and his wife, when work was regular and conditions normal, spent $35 per month for food, clothes, and incidentals. Their food cost about $25 per month, and the other $10 was spent for clothes and miscellaneous items. During the industrial depression they reduced their outlay for food $5 per month. The kind of food used by them daily under normal conditions was about as follows:

Breakfast: Tea, cream, cheese, bread. Dinner: Bread, some kind of meat or stew. Supper: Bread, meat, meat stew, or eggs.

The man began work in this country as a common laborer at $1.50 per day, and afterwards became a chipper in the steel works, earning between $2 and $3 per day. During the thirteen months during which he worked regularly the husband had saved between $150 and $200.

GROUP 9.-BULGARIAN (IMMIGRANT SECTION OF Town PROPER). This group consists of six men (recently eight) living in two rooms in a Macedonian rooming house. The rent for the two rooms is $5 per month. They use one to sleep in and the other as a kitchen and living room. The bedroom has two windows. The four beds completely fill

the room. The other articles of furniture are a plain table, chairs, small stove, and cooking utensils, the whole valued at about $30. The men do their own cooking, and their food costs from $7 to $18 per month for each member of the group. Under normal conditions they have a Servian or Polish woman to keep house for them. She cooks, launders, keeps house, and buys the food, for which services she is paid $20 per month. One man speaks a little English, and has taken out his first naturalization papers. The others expect to return to Bulgaria.

GROUP 10.-SLOVAK (IMMIGRANT SECTION OF Town PROPER). This group consists of man and wife and three children. They occupy two rooms in a large rooming house, on the first floor, behind å saloon. They have no boarders. The rent is $5 per month. It costs the family for rent and food from $25 to $30 per month. The furniture is valued at $150. It consists of cook stove, three iron beds, bureau, cupboard, wardrobe, chairs, and table. The floors have no carpets. The rooms are well kept and clean. The man is 34 years old, has been here seven years, speaks English, and is naturalized. The woman is 27 years old, and has been in this country two years. They were married before coming to the United States. The children are girls, 8, 61, and 1 year old. The two oldest speak English and attend the public schools. The man is a skilled blacksmith, and belongs to a labor union.

GROUP 11.-BULGARIAN FROM MACEDONIA (HUNGARY HOLLOW). This group of five Bulgarians pays $7 per month rent for two rooms in a Bulgarian rooming house. All sleep in one room upstairs and have a small room downstairs in which they cook. All are unskilled, none speak English, and all have been in this country only seven months. They have worked irregularly at $1.50 per day. They do their own cooking and housework and pay about $8 per month each for food. The furniture consists of one bed, 3 cots, stove, table, and chairs, valued at about $30. There is no carpet, and the rooms are badly kept and very dirty.

GROUP 12.-BULGARIANS FROM BULGARIA (HUNGARY HOLLOW). Five Bulgarians, cooking, eating, and sleeping in one room, constitute this group. They have been ten months in the United States and have worked two and one-half months in a glucose factory, at $2.08 for thirteen hours' work at night. None of them speak English, but they expect to remain in this country. They pay $8 rent, and their food costs them from $8 to $10 per month per man. They take turns at keeping house and cooking, and have their washing done by a Servian woman. The furniture consists of one bed, two cots, stove, small table (homemade), and chairs, all valued at $40.

GROUP 13.-BULGARIANS FROM MACEDONIA (HUNGARY HOLLow). This group consists of eleven Bulgarians living in two rooms in a Bulgarian rooming house. The rooms have two small windows. The group does its own cooking and housekeeping. Some of the men work at night and some during the day, and the night force cooks for the day, and vice versa. They are all working at unskilled labor at a wage ranging from $1.50 to $1.75 per day. They pay $12 per month rent, and their food costs each about $7 or $8 per month. They value their furniture, which consists of four beds, two cots, stove, chairs, and benches, at $50. None of the men speak English, and all have been in the United States between eight months and a year.

GROUP 14.-BULGARIANS FROM MACEDONIA (HUNGARY HOLLOW). These five Bulgarians, living, eating, cooking, and sleeping in one room in a large Bulgarian rooming house do their own cooking and housekeeping and pay from $7 to $8 per month each for food. They value their furniture at $30. It consists of two beds, two cots, several chairs, and a homemade cupboard and table. All the men have been in the United States about one year, and have worked in the steel mills and on railroad construction work, at $1.50 per day. None speak English, and all expect to return to Bulgaria.

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