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TABLE 610.–Average rent per month, by general nativity and race of head of household.

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The Bulgarians in the above table show a lower average rent per apartment and per person and a higher average rent per room than the Magyars. The lower rent per person is indicative of more congested conditions and a lower standard of living, and is of interest when it is recalled that the Bulgarian workers in the community usually live in large rooming houses and in apartments of one or two

The following table shows the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment, by general nativity and race of head of household.

rooms.

Table 611.Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per apartment,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the 138 households studied in the preceding table, 42.8 per cent pay under $5; 69.6 per cent under $7.50; and 79.7 per cent under $10, per month per apartment. Only 8.7 per cent pay as high as $15, leaving 91.3 per cent paying under this amount.

A larger proportion of households whose heads are Bulgarians than of the households the heads of which are Magyars pay each specified amount up to $10, while the reverse is true as regards each specified amount above $10.

The table next presented exhibits the range in rent payments per room, by showing, according to general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per room.

TABLE 612.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per room, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The foregoing table exhibits about the same proportion of both Bulgarians and Magyars paying under $2 and under $3 per month per room, but a considerably larger percentage of the households of the latter than of the former which pay less than $4 per month per room.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households paying each specified rent per month per person.

TABLE 613.- Per cent of households paying each specified rent per month per person, by

general nativity and race of head of household.

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All of the households whose heads were Magyars, as can be seen from the preceding table, pay under $3 per month per person, while ninetenths pay under $2 and one-fourth under $1. On the other hand,

' no decided advantage in favor of the Bulgarians is indicated. Only four households out of ninety-eight of this race studied, or 4.1 per cent of the total, pay $3 or over per month per person, while a slightly higher proportion of Bulgarian than of Magyar households have a monthly rent per person under $2, as well as less than $1.

BOARDERS AND LODGERS.

The tables next presented exhibit the tendency among the immigrant households to have boarders or lodgers. The first table submitted shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the number and percentage of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 614.-Number and per cent of households keeping boarders or lodgers, by general

nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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Only 1 household out of a total of 100 whose heads are Bulgarian is shown to have boarders or lodgers, as compared with 28 out of a total of 45 Magyar households, or 62.2 per cent. This situation is not due to a relatively greater tendency of Magyar than of Bulgarian households to have boarders or lodgers but to conditions in this community which are unlike those in other localities studied. As a matter of fact, practically all the Bulgarian households represented in the table are boarding groups, and the one household which is shown to have boarders or lodgers is the one family or household of the usual immigrant type. On the other hand, the Magyar households are representative of conditions of living usually found in immigrant communities, and, although a much higher proportion are found to have boarders or lodgers, yet, for the reasons stated above, the relative showing of the Magyars is probably much better than that of the Bulgarians.

The following table shows the average number of boarders or lodgers per households, based (1) on the total number of households and (2) on the number of households keeping boarders or lodgers.

TABLE 615.- Average number of boarders or lodgers per household, by general nativity and

race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) Information relating to boarders or lodgers covers only immediate time of taking schedule and not the

entire year. Boarders are persons who receive both board and lodging.)

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The preceding table shows that the 28 Magyar households keeping boarders or lodgers have an average of 4.96 boarders or lodgers per household and 3.09 boarders or lodgers per household based on the total number of households. The one Bulgarian household keeping boarders or lodgers has a total of 2 boarders or lodgers, or an average of 0.02 based on the total number of households of this race. In this connection it should be recalled that the prevailing method of living among the Bulgarians in the community is that of the boarding group, under which 4 to 16 males combine to form a household conducted on the boarding-boss system. Practically all of the 100 Bulgarian households, therefore, in a strict definition of the term, are boarding groups.

SIZE OF APARTMENTS OCCUPIED.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms. TABLE 616.—Per cent of households occupying apartments of each specified number of rooms, by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The preceding table clearly indicates that the Bulgarian households, as a rule, occupy one or two room apartments, 46 per cent of the 100 households studied having apartments of one room and 36 per cent apartments of two rooms, while only 12 per cent of the total live in apartments of four rooms. On the other hand, only 15.6 per cent of the Magyars live in apartments of one room and 37.8 per cent in apartments of two rooms, while 24.4 per cent have four-room apartments and 13.3 per cent five rooms. The large proportion of Bulgarians in one and two room apartments is due to the prevailing custom of that race of living in boarding groups occupying one or two rooms, while among the Magyars the characteristic feature is that of the family.

SIZE OF HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the percentage of households of each specified number of persons.

TABLE 617.—Per cent of households of each specified number of persons, by general nativity

and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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Of the households whose heads were Bulgarian, the largest proportion is seen to consist of five persons, as compared with ten or more persons, the highest percentage shown for the Magyars. Sixtyeight per cent of the Bulgarian households are of five persons or less than five persons, while 51.1 per cent of the Magyar households consist of six or more persons. The larger number of persons in the Magyar households is not indicative of greater congestion, as compared with the Bulgarian, for the reason that the Magyar households, as a rule, occupy apartments of a larger number of rooms and are representative of a more settled family life, while the Bulgarians, as has been stated, tend to live in boarding groups in small apartments.

CONGESTION.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room.

Table 618.— Average number of persons per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room,

by general nativity and race of head of household.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

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The preceding table, as might be expected, shows a larger average number of persons in apartments occupied by Magyar households than in those of the Bulgarians, while the Bulgarian households show a considerably higher average number of persons per room and per sleeping room, the conditions in all cases being traceable to the fact that the Bulgarian system of living is that of the boarding group occupying a small apartment with a high average of persons per room and per sleeping room as contrasted with the family life which prevails among the Magyars.

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