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working of economic forces. The older races in point of residence, having acquired a knowledge of the English language and a sufficient knowledge of the working conditions of the industry in which they have been located, have been able to do better work and command higher wages, or, on the other hand, their industrial progress in other lines of work has grown out of the fact that older immigrants have had time to acquire the knowledge to enter upon another trade or occupation. For these reasons, they assert, the displacement of the races has been attended with but little friction, individual loss, or maladjustment. The steel companies unite in the statement that recent immigrants have been employed chiefly because of the expansion of business, which produced an urgent demand for labor and made vacant a large number of unskilled places which the Americans would not accept. Also there has been a demand for higher paid and more skilled operatives. The Germans, Irish, Welsh, and Americans who formerly performed the common labor had reached a point in their technical experience when the expansion developed which enabled them to go up in the industrial scale. They were therefore promoted. Their promotion left vacant the positions which had been filled by them, and not being able to get Americans, Germans, Irish, or Welsh to take their places, because of the scarcity of labor, the employer was forced to take what he could get, and recourse was had to the Bulgarians and other races of recent immigration. Other local manufacturers assert that they have been forced to use immigrants to do certain work because the Americans will not do it on account of its disagreeable and arduous nature. The company engaged in the manufacture of corn products also states that it employs immigrants because they are good workers.

RACES PREFERRED BY EMPLOYERS.

Preferences of employers for the different races could be obtained only in very general terms. It seems to be the general consensus of opinion among employers here that recent immigrants in general fall below natives and the English-speaking races and Germans in all qualities except industriousness and sobriety. For all skilled work and work with machinery the English-speaking races and Germans are generally preferred. Practically none of the other races are found in the skilled occupations. For unskilled work the English-speaking races and Germans are again preferred. Next come the Poles. Of the recent immigrants, they are considered the most industrious; more industrious even than native Americans. In effectiveness they are also considered about on a par with the natives and lead the other races They are thought to be the most tractable, adaptable, progressive, and effective. After the Poles, the Magyars, in the opinion of the employers, have these qualities in the next highest degree. The general opinion seems to be that there is no difference among the races as regards sobriety. One employer states, however, that all the recent immigrants seem to be above the average American standard_in sobriety. Again, all employers seem united in saying that the Bulgarians are least preferred of the immigrants in any occupation. They are not adaptable, require considerable supervision, and generally are the least effective of the immigrant races.

CHANGES IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AND ORGANIZATION.

Immigrants have not affected methods of work. The employers claim that they have lowered the standard of efficiency and have made discipline harder, thus requiring a much greater degree of supervision. The employers also claim that wages have shown no change apparently attendant on the competition of immigrants. They have had no effect in causing machinery to be installed or in keeping it from being used. The hours of work have remained the same since the employment of immigrants.

PROGRESS OF IMMIGRANTS.

According to the opinions of employers, immigrants are generally advancing in the scale of wages. The Poles and Magyars are perhaps making the greatest progress among recent immigrants in wage earning. Slovaks and Bohemians are also mentioned as progressive. The Bulgarians are still at work in the occupations that pay the lowest wages. They show less desire than any of the other races to advance themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the recent immigrants become foremen.

CHAPTER V.

HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

General housing and living conditions-Systems of domestic economy-Rent in its relation to standard of living-Boarders and lodgers Size of apartments occupiedSize of households studied-Congestion—{Text Tables 610 to 621 and General Tables 339 to 350).

GENERAL HOUSING AND LIVING CONDITIONS.

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The facilities for housing are of two kinds: (1) Large lodging or apartment houses and (2) small three and four room cottages.

In the immigrant sections of the two towns of the community the entire alien population, with the exception of the Magyars, live in lodging houses. In Hungary Hollow about one-half live in lodging houses and one-half in cottages.

The typical lodging houses are owned and conducted by the large mercantile establishments. They are large square or rectangular three or four story brick buildings. Space is reserved on the first floor by the business establishment for a saloon, grocery, or other store, and usually part of the second floor is utilized for a dance or assembly hall. The remainder of the building is converted into rooms of different sizes and rented to the alien population. The number of rooms to each building varies from 20 to 50 or more. The interior construction is designed to secure the greatest economy of space. On each floor a hall of good width, from 5 to 8 feet, runs the entire length of the building, and from this hall doors open into the various rooms. The hallways, which are common property, are usually in a filthy and squalid condition. No particular tendency toward filling them with refuse or using them for

storage purposes is noticeable; but their appearance is such as to indicate that they are scarcely ever scrubbed or swept. They are also dark and unlighted, except by a window from the rear. The floors are covered usually with mud and dirt and the walls, though plastered, are usually badly discolored.

The rooms in these buildings are usually well lighted. Some of them are rectangular, narrow, and about 12 to 14 feet long and have only one window. Usually they are square, however, or almost square, and have two windows of the average size. The usual size of the square rooms is about 14 by 15 or 15 by 12 feet. The larger rooms will admit two beds and two cots, placed close together, while the smaller rooms have space sufficient for three or, as a rule, four small cots. The walls are thin and plastered. In about one-half of the buildings the plumbing is insanitary and in none are there any baths or sanitary closets. Dry closets, as well as frame buildings for storing fuel, are found in the small yards at the rear. On each floor at the rear of a few of the buildings there are small rooms with running water which are used as laundries. Some of the buildings also have stairways at the back, on the outside, which may be utilized as fire

escapes. In general, the buildings are fairly well constructed. On the other hand, a number have been erected in a very rough and unsanitary way in the effort to secure cheapness and because alien immigrant labor of a more or less unskilled type was employed in their construction. The worst building of this kind was constructed almost entirely by immigrant labor. It is said to be highly insanitary.

There are ten of these large rooming houses in the community, four of which are in Hungary Hollow. Smaller lodging houses in considerable number, which follow the general lines of the larger establishments are also to be found. The smaller places are usually frame buildings, square or rectangular in shape, with a saloon, coffee house, or store on the ground floor. The older immigrants and the American population, as a rule, live in small one-story frame cottages in the towns proper.

As mentioned above, about one-half of the immigrants in Hungary Hollow live in cottages. The cottage district is situated on the open

. prairie to the south of the business and lodging-house section. The cottages are built in rows, and, in general, it may be stated that there is an abundance of space between the buildings. Almost every cottage has a lot, about 50 by 150 feet, suitable for gardening; but only in a very few cases is this space utilized. The greater number of the cottage plots are unfenced. The buildings themselves are small

, one story in height, and usually are in great need of repair. They contain three and four and, in a few instances, five rooms. The larger number have three rooms, with only one window in each of the two smaller rooms. The dimensions of the rooms are about 8 by 6 feet. Two windows are usually found in the remaining room, which is generally about 10 by 12 feet in size. Where there are four and five rooms, the additional rooms are small. The walls are thin and are plastered and whitewashed. Usually there are no doors separating the rooms or only one or two doors shutting off the smaller rooms.

There are very few Americans living in Hungary Hollow. No American families are there and there is only one boarding house occupied by natives. This establishment is situated on the main street, adjoining the foreign section, and is the first building passed in approaching Hungary Hollow. It is a square frame structure, very similar to an Armenian boarding house next door. A saloon is operated in connection with it, and it is occupied by Americans who are engaged in work similar to or more skilled than that of the immigrants. Exclusive of those in this boarding house, the Americans live in the towns proper.

In the immigrant quarter of the two towns of the community there are a few American families. Their houses are three and four room frame cottages, one story in height, situated in the spaces between the immigrant mercantile houses and business establishments, and were probably constructed before the immigrants arrived. These Americans live in the usual American way. They represent, however, a very small portion of the American population. The American section lies east of the foreign and is separated from it by about a half or three-quarters of a mile of open prairie. The American employees of the industrial establishments almost without exception live in small frame cottages one story in height, containing three or four rooms. One family, as a rule, occupies a cottage.

SYSTEMS OF DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

The methods of living practiced by the races of recent immigration are numerous, but all may be reduced to four general classes: (1) A system similar to the "boarding boss” system; (2) a system by which the members take turns in managing the household; (3) boarding; and (4) the family. Each of these general forms has a number of variations.

There are very few families of recent immigrants outside of the towns proper, and where living without boarders they are found in the large rooming houses of Hungary Hollow occupying one or more

No families live in cottages except Armenians. A large number, perhaps almost all of the families of recent immigration, live in the lodging houses, and it is quite common to find families there with boarders. They usually have two rooms, one for the boarders and another for cooking, eating, and the sleeping quarters of the family. Food, light, beds, and heat are provided by the families at a certain fixed charge per month. In addition to this boarding system, which is modeled somewhat after the American idea, it may be noted that the Armenians (with the exception of the families) live almost entirely in large boarding houses, paying a fixed sum to the proprietor for light, food, room, and heat.

By far the larger number in both Hungary Hollow and the towns live on a group system. This system has two forms: (1) That based upon the boarding-boss idea and (2) that form under which the household management is shared among the members of the group. The first form is confined almost exclusively to the Bulgarians and Macedonians and is practiced extensively in the lodging houses. A group of men, usually five or six, rent two rooms, one for sleeping and the other for cooking. A Servian, Austrian, or Polish woman is employed at a fixed amount per month to do the buying and cooking of the food and the washing and household work. The accounts for meat, groceries, and bread are kept under one name at the different stores. At the end of the month each man pays his share of the aggregate expense, including the wages of the housekeeper, the rent, and the store bills.

The second form in which the group idea is followed differs from the first in that the members of the group take turns each day in doing the cooking and housework. The rent and the cost of food is shared proportionately. In most cases the washing is done by Polish or other women, although in many cases the men do their own washing. Under this sytem, the cost of living is reduced by the elimination of the wages of the housekeeper. This system operated extensively in the large rooming houses and almost exclusively in the cottages.

In a number of cases men are found who are grouped together so far as lodging is concerned but who buy their food separately. Some of them board with families, others at foreign restaurants, and others buy and cook their own food.

RENT IN ITS RELATION TO STANDARD OF LIVING. The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head of household, the average rent payment per month of the households studied, per apartment, per room, and per sleeping room.

48296 -VOL 9--11—6

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