Lapas attēli

of economic forces. The older races in point of residence, -quired a knowledge of the English language and a sufficient e of the working conditions of the industry in which they a located, have been able to do better work and command ges, or, on the other hand, their industrial progress in other work has grown out of the fact that older immigrants have to acquire the knowledge to enter upon another trade or n. For these reasons, they assert, the displacement of the I been attended with but little friction, individual loss, or tment. The steel companies unite in the statement that migrants have been employed chiefly because of the expan-usiness, which produced an urgent demand for labor and ant a large number of unskilled places which the Americans t accept. Also there has been a demand for higher paid and led operatives. The Germans, Irish, Welsh, and Americans erly performed the common labor had reached a point in nical experience when the expansion developed which enem to go up in the industrial scale. They were therefore 1. Their promotion left vacant the positions which had d by them, and not being able to get Americans, Germans, Welsh to take their places, because of the scarcity of labor, oyer was forced to take what he could get, and recourse was he Bulgarians and other races of recent immigration. Other nufacturers assert that they have been forced to use immio do certain work because the Americans will not do it on of its disagreeable and arduous nature. The company in the manufacture of corn products also states that it immigrants because they are good workers.


ences of employers for the different races could be obtained very general terms. It seems to be the general consensus of among employers here that recent immigrants in general fall atives and the English-speaking races and Germans in all except industriousness and sobriety. For all skilled work k with machinery the English-speaking races and Germans rally preferred. Practically none of the other races are found killed occupations. For unskilled work the English-speaking d Germans are again preferred. Next come the Poles. Of nt immigrants, they are considered the most industrious; more ous even than native Americans. In effectiveness they are sidered about on a par with the natives and lead the other They are thought to be the most tractable, adaptable, pro, and effective. After the Poles, the Magyars, in the opinion employers, have these qualities in the next highest degree. neral opinion seems to be that there is no difference among es as regards sobriety. One employer states, however, that recent immigrants seem to be above the average American d in sobriety. Again, all employers seem united in saying



Immigrants have not affected methods of w claim that they have lowered the standard of made discipline harder, thus requiring a much gr vision. The employers also claim that wages ha apparently attendant on the competition of imm had no effect in causing machinery to be insta from being used. The hours of work have rem the employment of immigrants.


According to the opinions of employers, imm advancing in the scale of wages. The Poles and making the greatest progress among recent immi ing. Slovaks and Bohemians are also mentioned Bulgarians are still at work in the occupations wages. They show less desire than any of the ot themselves. With rare exceptions, none of the become foremen.



sing and living conditions-Systems of domestic economy-Rent in its standard of living-Boarders and lodgers-Size of apartments occupiedhouseholds studied-Congestion-[Text Tables 610 to 621 and General to 350].


-ilities for housing are of two kinds: (1) Large lodging or thouses and (2) small three and four room cottages. In rant sections of the two towns of the community the entire lation, with the exception of the Magyars, live in lodging In Hungary Hollow about one-half live in lodging houses alf in cottages.

ical lodging houses are owned and conducted by the large e establishments. They are large square or rectangular four story brick buildings. Space is reserved on the first the business establishment for a saloon, grocery, or other usually part of the second floor is utilized for a dance or hall. The remainder of the building is converted into different sizes and rented to the alien population. The f rooms to each building varies from 20 to 50 or more. The onstruction is designed to secure the greatest economy of On each floor a hall of good width, from 5 to 8 feet, runs the gth of the building, and from this hall doors open into the ooms. The hallways, which are common property, are usuilthy and squalid condition. No particular tendency toward em with refuse or using them for storage purposes is noticetheir appearance is such as to indicate that they are scarcely bbed or swept. They are also dark and unlighted, except by w from the rear. The floors are covered usually with mud and the walls, though plastered, are usually badly discolored. oms in these buildings are usually well lighted. Some of rectangular, narrow, and about 12 to 14 feet long and have window. Usually they are square, however, or almost square, two windows of the average size. The usual size of the square about 14 by 15 or 15 by 12 feet. The larger rooms will adbeds and two cots, placed close together, while the smaller ave space sufficient for three or, as a rule, four small cots. s are thin and plastered. In about one-half of the buildings bing is insanitary and in none are there any baths or sanisets. Dry closets, as well as frame buildings for storing fuel, d in the small yards at the rear. On each floor at the rear of the buildings there are small rooms with running water re used as laundries. Some of the buildings also have stairhe utilized ea fire



escapes. In general, the buildings are fairly the other hand, a number have been erected unsanitary way in the effort to secure cheapn immigrant labor of a more or less unskilled tv their construction. The worst building of this almost entirely by immigrant labor. It is said to

There are ten of these large rooming houses in of which are in Hungary Hollow. Smaller lodgi able number, which follow the general lines of ments are also to be found. The smaller plac buildings, square or rectangular in shape, with a or store on the ground floor. The older immigra population, as a rule, live in small one-story towns proper.

As mentioned above, about one-half of the im Hollow live in cottages. The cottage district is prairie to the south of the business and lodging cottages are built in rows, and, in general, it may is an abundance of space between the buildings tage has a lot, about 50 by 150 feet, suitable only in a very few cases is this space utilized. T the cottage plots are unfenced. The buildings t one story in height, and usually are in great n contain three and four and, in a few instance larger number have three rooms, with only or the two smaller rooms. The dimensions of the 6 feet. Two windows are usually found in the re is generally about 10 by 12 feet in size. Wher five rooms, the additional rooms are small. Th are plastered and whitewashed. Usually there ar the rooms or only one or two doors shutting off th

There are very few Americans living in Hu American families are there and there is only occupied by natives. This establishment is si street, adjoining the foreign section, and is the in approaching Hungary Hollow. It is a squ very similar to an Armenian boarding house n is operated in connection with it, and it is occ who are engaged in work similar to or more skill immigrants. Exclusive of those in this boardi cans live in the towns proper.

In the immigrant quarter of the two towns there are a few American families. Their house room frame cottages, one story in height, situat tween the immigrant mercantile houses and busi and were probably constructed before the immigr Americans live in the usual American way. They a very small portion of the American population. tion lies east of the foreign and is separated from three-quarters of a mile of open prairie. The Am the industrial establishments almost without exc frame cottages one story in height, containing t


methods of living practiced by the races of recent immigration erous, but all may be reduced to four general classes: (1) A similar to the "boarding boss" system; (2) a system by which mbers take turns in managing the household; (3) boarding; the family. Each of these general forms has a number of


e are very few families of recent immigrants outside of the proper, and where living without boarders they are found in e rooming houses of Hungary Hollow occupying one or more No families live in cottages except Armenians. A large numhaps almost all of the families of recent immigration, live in ging houses, and it is quite common to find families there with


They usually have two rooms, one for the boarders and - for cooking, eating, and the sleeping quarters of the family. ight, beds, and heat are provided by the families at a certain arge per month. In addition to this boarding system, which led somewhat after the American idea, it may be noted that nenians (with the exception of the families) live almost entirely eboarding houses, paying a fixed sum to the proprietor for Dod, room, and heat.

ar the larger number in both Hungary Hollow and the towns a group system. This system has two forms: (1) That based he boarding-boss idea and (2) that form under which the old management is shared among the members of the group. rst form is confined almost exclusively to the Bulgarians acedonians and is practiced extensively in the lodging houses. p of men, usually five or six, rent two rooms, one for sleeping e other for cooking. A Servian, Austrian, or Polish woman loyed at a fixed amount per month to do the buying and g of the food and the washing and household work. The ats for meat, groceries, and bread are kept under one name at the nt stores. At the end of the month each man pays his share aggregate expense, including the wages of the housekeeper, the and the store bills.

second form in which the group idea is followed differs from the that the members of the group take turns each day in doing oking and housework. The rent and the cost of food is shared rtionately. In most cases the washing is done by Polish or women, although in many cases the men do their own washing. this sytem, the cost of living is reduced by the elimination of ages of the housekeeper. This system operated extensively in rge rooming houses and almost exclusively in the cottages. a number of cases men are found who are grouped together so lodging is concerned but who buy their food separately. Some m board with families, others at foreign restaurants, and others and cook their own food.


e table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of head

« iepriekšējāTurpināt »