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The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of total yearly income from husband, wife, children, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 607.-Per cent of total family income within the year from husband, wife, children,

boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and race of head of family.

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From the above table it is seen that 68 per cent of the total family income of the Magyar families is derived from the earnings of husbands, 26.6 per cent from the payments of boarders or lodgers, and only 2.1 per cent from the contributions of children, and 1.1 per cent from the earnings of wives, the two main sources of family support obviously being the earnings of the husbands and the income received from keeping boarders or lodgers.

CHAPTER IV.

WORKING CONDITIONS.

Regularity of employment-Methods of wage payments--Company houses—Com

pany stores-Relations between the races- -Welfare work-Women and children employed–The immigrant and organized labor-Reasons for employing immigrants Races preferred by employers-Changes in industrial processes and organization-Progress of immigrants—[Text Tables 608 and 609 and General Table 338].

REGULARITY OF EMPLOYMENT.

Normally, work in the industries of this community continues steadily throughout the year. During 1908 and 1909 the car shops and steel companies constantly reduced their working forces until only a very small percentage of the number employed before the panic are now at work. The car shops at the time of the agent's visit were not doing much beyond overhauling and repairing their plants. The steel companies were working a small force, but were planning to shut down completely. The granite and steel ware plant was also operat. ing with a small force. On the other hand, the depression brought an increasing volume of business to the company engaged in the manufacture of a cheap kind of sirup, and they are employing more labor than ever before.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race of individual, months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over, in the households studied, employed away from home. TABLE 608.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all races.)

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Only 5.6 per cent of the Bulgarians and 18.7 per cent of the Magyars were at work for twelve months preceding the time at which the data were collected. A somewhat larger proportion of the Bulgarians worked six months or over than of the Magyars, but a smaller proportion of the former than of the latter were at work nine months or over. No indication as to the relative industriousness of either race is afforded by the table for the reason that regularity of work offered was seriously interfered with by the industrial depression of 1907-8, especially in the case of the Bulgarians who were employed in the larger numbers in the iron and steel industry.

METHODS OF WAGE PAYMENTS.

In the community wages are universally paid by check every two weeks.

COMPANY HOUSES. There are no company houses in this community. None of the industrial concerns operate a store nor are they connected with the management of any: The lodging houses of the community are owned and conducted by the large immigrant mercantile establishments.

COMPANY STORES.

The companies do not operate their own stores nor are they connected with any of the stores of the town.

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE RACES.

At work, the only place where the employer could readily influence the segregation of his employees, no attempt is made on his

part to separate in any way the different races. Whatever segregation takes place comes about through the action of the employees themselves. In the steel industry, in the molding departments, immigrants work with native Americans and with other races of immigrants. În the finishing department the roughing and chipping is done almost entirely by immigrants and negroes, but here too the different races work together.

Apart from any influence originating with the employers, the recent immigrant races especially segregate themselves in their own boarding and living places. Some localities are inhabited almost exclusively by particular races. There seems to be but very little free association among the different races of recent immigrants after working hours. Men of each race associate largely with their countrymen, though the Poles and Magyars in some cases are beginning to associate quite freely with one another. The same is true of the Poles, the Slovaks, and the Croatians. In addition to not freely associating with one another, there is considerable friction between the Irish, Austrians, and Magyars, on the one hand, and the Macedonians, Bulgarians, Roumanians, and other southeastern European and Oriental races, , on the other hand, growing out of the conditions under which employment is given. The unskilled and less skilled employees of the steel companies gather each morning at the gates of the different plants and are designated for work by the foremen. There is not much competition between the races so far as unskilled labor is concerned. The southeastern European peoples may be said to be practically without competition there. In the occupations which require some skill, however, and to which a large number of Macedonians and Bulgarians have attained, there is considerable direct competition. The Irish, Magyars, and Austrians frequently adopt the policy of driving the newcomers by force away from the mill gates. Oftentimes the recent arrivals resent such action and a general fight along racial lines ensues, the weapons employed being fists, stones, and other missiles, and, in some cases, revolvers. This tendency is, of course, much intensified in seasons of slack employment or curtailment of work. The immigrants, except the English, Germans, Irish,

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and Welsh, do not associate freely with the natives, but stay largely in the colonies of their fellow-countrymen. There is a general dislike on the part of the English-speaking races for the “foreigner,

The Magyars, Poles, and Slovaks are brought more or less into contact with American people and their habits of living. Their children attend the public schools, and they sometimes join trade unions. With the Bulgarians, Roumanians, and Armenians the situation is different. A few representative men from among editors, mercantile proprietors, and educated men live in American sections according to American standards, but the majority of these races are either unmarried or without their families in this country. Very few attend school or are receiving instruction in English. Practically none are members of labor unions. In their present mode of living they have little contact with American churches, schools, or business houses.

WELFARE WORK.

No company investigated furnishes any medical or hospital service to its employees. These companies, however, have liability insurance, which provides that their employees injured at work shall be furnished free of cost medical and hospital service while such is needed. Further adjustments are made by agreements or by the courts.

With one exception, no company undertakes any welfare work among its employees. This company sets apart a building for a boys' club and a school. The club members are almost entirely natives. The classes in spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, and drawing are held every night except Saturday and Sunday. They are attended by natives and immigrants alike. About 10 per cent of their immigrant employees avail themselves of the opportunities offered. The Poles, of the recent immigrants, seem to take the greatest interest in these classes and make the greatest progress. The company also furnishes a small library of one hundred or more volumes for use of all employees. Current magazines are also kept on file.

One-half of this community is situated on very low land. The plants are all badly located, and in this respect are not sanitary. Aside from this, sanitary conditions are good. None of the immigrants are in occupations which make them specially liable to disease. Among the steel workers there is the special liability to accident incidental to all steel plants. In the corn-refining plants liability to accident is confined to machine workers.

WOMEN AND CHILDREN EMPLOYED.

No children are employed. In the corn-products refining establishment some immigrant girls are employed. Only a few of the recent immigrants are employed, however, and these are mostly Slovaks and Magyars. They work ten hours per day and receive 124 cents per hour. Women are employed because of their neatness and their good appearance. The sirup house furnishes work especially fitted to women. The recent immigrants were employed to increase the output, all the former employees being retained.

THE IMMIGRANT AND ORGANIZED LABOR.

With the exception of the Magyars, practically none of the members of other races of southern and eastern Europe belong to or manifest any interest in the local labor organization. This fact is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by general nativity and race of individual, the affiliation with trade unions of males, in the households studied, who were 21 years of age or over working for wages: TABLE 609.—Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years of age or over who are working

for wages, by gencral nativity and race of individual.

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From computations based upon a total of 534 males it may be seen that only 2.6 per cent are affiliated with trade unions. Of the two races reporting, the Magyars show by far the largest proportion, or 9.4 per cent, as compared with 0.3 per cent of the Bulgarians.

REASONS FOR EMPLOYING IMMIGRANTS.

Representative American laborers and labor leaders claim that the recent immigrants were originally employed as strike breakers at a lower wage than Americans, Germans, and Irish who had done the same work, and that since that time the races from southern and eastern Europe have been retained and their number increased because they have been willing to work at a lower wage than the former employees.

In the year 1904 a strike was declared by unions of unskilled employees. One of the steel plants imported negroes to take the place of their former employees, but the negroes were forced to leave. Four or five carloads of Bulgarians were then brought in during the night and placed in the positions which the strikers had left vacant. These races agreed to work for $1.25 to $1.35 per day and to do the same work as the strikers had formerly done and for which they received $2 to $2.50 per day. These immigrants were found by the company to be satisfactory. Others were secured, the strikers were defeated, a large number permanently losing their places in the steel works. Others went back to work at a reduced wage, and most of these have since risen in the industrial scale to more skilled occupations. It is claimed by the labor organizations that Americans, Germans, and Irish would willingly do the same work that the recent immigrants are now doing if they were paid higher wages.

On the other hand, the employers claim that the racial displacements in the local industries have been brought about by the natural

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