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The following table shows, by general nativity family, the per cent of total yearly income from dren, boarders or lodgers, and other sources:

TABLE 607.-Per cent of total family income within the year from boarders or lodgers, and other sources, by general nativity and

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From the above table it is seen that 68 per cent income of the Magyar families is derived from th bands, 26.6 per cent from the payments of board only 2.1 per cent from the contributions of childre from the earnings of wives, the two main sources obviously being the earnings of the husbands and t from keeping boarders or lodgers.



7 of employment-Methods of wage_payments-Company houses-Com ores-Relations between the races-Welfare work-Women and children d-The immigrant and organized labor-Reasons for employing immiRaces preferred by employers-Changes in industrial processes and organiProgress of immigrants [Text Tables 608 and 609 and General Table 338].


ally, work in the industries of this community continues steadghout the year. During 1908 and 1909 the car shops and npanies constantly reduced their working forces until only nall percentage of the number employed before the panic are ork. The car shops at the time of the agent's visit were not uch beyond overhauling and repairing their plants. The panies were working a small force, but were planning to shut mpletely. The granite and steel ware plant was also operat a small force. On the other hand, the depression brought asing volume of business to the company engaged in the ture of a cheap kind of sirup, and they are employing more an ever before.

ollowing table shows, by general nativity and race of indimonths worked during the past year by males 16 years of ver, in the households studied, employed away from home. 3.- Months worked during the past year by males 16 years of age or over employed away from home, by general nativity and race of individual.


includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all races.]

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.6 per cent of the Bulgarians and 18.7 per cent of the Magyars work for twelve months preceding the time at which the re collected. A somewhat larger proportion of the Bulgarked six months or over than of the Magyars, but a smaller on of the former than of the latter were at work nine months No indication as to the relative industriousness of either fforded by the table for the reason that regularity of work vas seriously interfered with by the industrial depression of especially in the case of the Bulgarians who were employed


In the community wages are universally two weeks.


There are no company houses in this comn industrial concerns operate a store nor are the management of any. The lodging houses of the and conducted by the large immigrant mercant


The companies do not operate their own sto nected with any of the stores of the town.



At work, the only place where the employer c the segregation of his employees, no attempt is separate in any way the different races. takes place comes about through the action of selves. In the steel industry, in the molding grants work with native Americans and with other In the finishing department the roughing and chi entirely by immigrants and negroes, but here to work together.

Apart from any influence originating with the immigrant races especially segregate themselves i and living places. Some localities are inhabite by particular races. There seems to be but very among the different races of recent immigrants Men of each race associate largely with their the Poles and Magyars in some cases are beginni freely with one another. The same is true of the and the Croatians. In addition to not freely a another, there is considerable friction between t and Magyars, on the one hand, and the Maced Roumanians, and other southeastern European on the other hand, growing out of the conditions u ment is given. The unskilled and less skilled em companies gather each morning at the gates of and are designated for work by the foremen. competition between the races so far as unskilled The southeastern European peoples may be sai without competition there. In the occupations skill, however, and to which a large number o Bulgarians have attained, there is considerable The Irish, Magyars, and Austrians frequently a driving the newcomers by force away from the times the recent arrivals resent such action and a racial lines ensues, the weapons employed being other missiles, and, in some cases, revolvers. T course, much intensified in seasons of slack


sh, do not associate freely with the natives, but stay largely lonies of their fellow-countrymen. There is a general dislike art of the English-speaking races for the "foreigner." lagyars, Poles, and Slovaks are brought more or less into with American people and their habits of living. Their attend the public schools, and they sometimes join trade With the Bulgarians, Roumanians, and Armenians the nis different. A few representative men from among editors, ile proprietors, and educated men live in American sections g to American standards, but the majority of these races er unmarried or without their families in this country. Very end school or are receiving instruction in English. Pracone are members of labor unions. In their present mode of hey have little contact with American churches, schools, or s houses.


ompany investigated furnishes any medical or hospital servts employees. These companies, however, have liability in, which provides that their employees injured at work shall ished free of cost medical and hospital service while such is Further adjustments are made by agreements or by the

one exception, no company undertakes any welfare work its employees. This company sets apart a building for a lub and a school. The club members are almost entirely . The classes in spelling, reading, writing, arithmetic, and gare held every night except Saturday and Sunday. They ended by natives and immigrants alike. About 10 per cent immigrant employees avail themselves of the opportunities . The Poles, of the recent immigrants, seem to take the t interest in these classes and make the greatest progress. mpany also furnishes a small library of one hundred or more es for use of all employees. Current magazines are also kept


half of this community is situated on very low land. are all badly located, and in this respect are not sanitary. from this, sanitary conditions are good. None of the immiare in occupations which make them specially liable to disease. g the steel workers there is the special liability to accident tal to all steel plants. In the corn-refining plants liability ident is confined to machine workers.


children are employed. In the corn-products refining estab-nt some immigrant girls are employed. Only a few of the recent rants are employed, however, and these are mostly Slovaks Magyars. They work ten hours per day and receive 12 cents our. Women are employed because of their neatness and their appearance. The sirup house furnishes work especially fitted


With the exception of the Magyars, practicall of other races of southern and eastern Europe any interest in the local labor organization. by the following table, which shows, by genera individual, the affiliation with trade unions of holds studied, who were 21 years of age or over

TABLE 609.-Affiliation with trade unions of males 21 years o for wages, by general nativity and race of in

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From computations based upon a total of 534 that only 2.6 per cent are affiliated with trade races reporting, the Magyars show by far the 1 9.4 per cent, as compared with 0.3 per cent of the


Representative American laborers and labor le recent immigrants were originally employed as lower wage than Americans, Germans, and Iris same work, and that since that time the races eastern Europe have been retained and their because they have been willing to work at a l former employees.

In the year 1904 a strike was declared by employees. One of the steel plants imported negr of their former employees, but the negroes were fo or five carloads of Bulgarians were then brought and placed in the positions which the strikers had races agreed to work for $1.25 to $1.35 per day work as the strikers had formerly done and for $2 to $2.50 per day. These immigrants were fou to be satisfactory. Others were secured, the stri a large number permanently losing their places Others went back to work at a reduced wage, and since risen in the industrial scale to more skilled claimed by the labor organizations that Americ Irish would willingly do the same work that the are now doing if they were paid higher wages.

On the other hand, the employers claim that

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