« iepriekšējāTurpināt »
The preceding table shows that the large majority of the Bulgarians are employed in the iron and steel industry, only 6.9 per cent being at home, 16.6 per cent employed in other industries than iron and steel, and a negligible proportion at school. On the other hand, the Magyars, as already pointed out, display a tendency to move away from the iron and steel industry to other occupations and pursuits, only 18.6 per cent of the males of this race of working age being employed in the iron and steel industry and 74.6 per cent otherwise employed, while 6.8 per cent are at home and none at school.
COMPARISON OF OCCUPATIONS OF RECENT IMMIGRANTS WITH OTHER OCCUPATIONS.
Five years ago the unskilled labor in the steel works was performed by Americans, Irish, Germans, English, Welsh and a few Magyars. Since that time these races have been entirely displaced by the Bulgarians and other southeastern European races. The Germans and English in the employ of the steel companies have advanced in the industrial scale, as well as the Magyars. They do not come into direct contact with the recent immigrants, except in "chipping," as described elsewhere. The Irish who have remained with the steel companies are generally foremen or bosses. The Germans, Irish, and English are practically Americanized. Their children have passed through the public schools and are engaged in clerical, mechanical or business pursuits elsewhere. Very few Magyars have remained in the steel plants. There are some Magyar chippers and molders. Most of them, however, have gone to the granite or steel ware works or the corn-products plant, where the work is lighter and the compensation higher than that of the unskilled laborer in the steel and car plants. To secure these positions in these establishments, they are required to have a fair knowledge of English, and this requirement they have been able to satisfy because of their long term of residence as compared with other southeastern European races.
About 325 Magyars have employment in the corn-products refining company, and the greater part of the remainder are in the granite ware and steel plants. The skilled positions with the steel companies, the granite ware, and the corn-products plant are held by Americans, Irish, and Germans. The entire canning factory of the corn products plant is operated by these races, who receive $2.50 per day. The mechanical positions and trades are also controlled by them. The Germans are very numerous as machinists and carpenters.
In the steel mills of this community it is found that the positions of trust and those calling for skilled labor, such as clerks, draftsmen, foremen, switchmen, teamsters and watchmen are filled by the Americans, Germans, and Irish, while the positions for unskilled labor such as unloading, floating gang, etc., are filled by negroes, Poles, Bulgarians, and Macedonians. In the smelting departments, the skilled and responsible positions such as melters, ladlemen, charging-machine men, bricklayers and chemists are filled by Americans, Germans, and Irish; while the positions calling for unskilled labor are occupied by Bulgarians and Slovaks. The same is true of the molding departments where the foundrymen, molders, foremen, and carpenters are Americans, Germans and Irish, and the rammers, helpers and common laborers are Macedonians, Bulgarians, and Ar
menians. In the pattern department no races but Americans and Germans are employed as all the labor in this department is skilled.
In the machinery and power department practically the same condition prevails as all the occupations such as blacksmiths, mechanics, pattern makers, electricians, pipe fitters, etc., call for skilled labor and are occupied by Americans, Irish, and Germans. In the finishing department where both skilled and unskilled labor is employed the Americans, Germans, and Irish have the positions calling for skilled labor and the Macedonians, Bulgarians, Turks, Roumanians, and negroes the positions requiring only unskilled labor.
The foregoing statements may be graphically shown by exhibiting the occupations by race in a number of the departments of the local manufacturing establishments. Immediately below there is submitted a table showing the number of the representatives of the several races in the various occupations of a large rolling mill.
TABLE 593.-Number of male employees of a rolling mill in Community E, by race and occupation.
The following tables show the number of each race in the chief occupations of the corn-products refining establishment.
TABLE 594.-Number of male employees in a corn-product refining company in Community E, by race and occupation.
TABLE 595.-Number of female employees in a corn-product refining company in Community E, by race and occupation.
The table next presented shows the number of employees in each principal occupation of the stamp works of the local stamping and graniteware company:
TABLE 596.—Number of male employees in a granite and stamping plant in Community
E, by race and occupation.
ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALE HEADS OF FAMILIES STUDIED.
The following table shows that of the 44 Magyar husbands from whom information was received all are regularly employed and earn an average of $444 per annum.
TABLE 597.-Husbands at work, by general nativity and race of individual.
The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the range in annual earnings of male heads of families:
Table 598.—Earnings per year of male heads of families, by general nativity and race of
(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)
[This table includes only male heads of selected families. For selection of families, see p. 272.]
The preceding table shows that the annual average earnings of foreign heads of Maygar families are $444, and that all of the heads earn less than $800 per year. Slightly more than two-fifths earn under $400, and a shade more than four-fifths less than $600.
ANNUAL EARNINGS OF MALES 18 YEARS OF AGE OR OVER IN THE HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.
The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of individual, yearly approximate earnings of all males 18 years of age or over, in the households studied, who were working for wages.
TABLE 599.— Yearly earnings (approximate) of males 18 years of age or over, by general nativity and race of individual.
The average yearly earnings for all foreign-born males who are working for wages are shown by the above table to be $285. The annual earnings of the Magyars are considerably above those of the Bulgarians, the former showing $339 as compared with $261 of the latter. About the same proportions of the Magyars and Bulgarians earn under $200 per year, while a larger proportion of the latter than of the former earn under $400 and under $600.
ANNUAL FAMILY INCOME.
The following table shows, by general nativity and race of head of family, the per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount.
TABLE 600.-Per cent of families having a total yearly income of each specified amount, by general nativity and race of head of family.