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TABLE 586.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number

of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States, no deduction is made

for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows that all of the Bulgarians from whom information was received have been in the United States less than ten years, and 96.7 per cent under five years. On the other hand, only 80.7 per cent of the Magyars are of a residence less than five years, and 96.7 per cent under ten years, 3.3 per cent being in the United States between ten and twenty years.


Employers disclaim any special efforts to secure immigrant labor. In times of scarcity, one company sometimes resorts to advertising. The common practice, it is asserted, is for the foremen to secure their unskilled workers from applicants at the gates.

In the course of the investigation it was impossible to determine whether or not the mercantile houses were conducting employment agencies. There was no direct evidence to that effect, and the managers of the various establishments vigorously denied that they were engaged in this business. At the same time it was evident that they were the potent factors in controlling public opinion and in bringing about the constant changes in the composition of the labor supply. It was also evident that they acted in an advisory capacity, to say the least, in writing and providing the means for aliens to come here. In these services they claimed they were acting in a disinterested way. At the same time it was apparent that the existence of a large and more or less stable labor supply added greatly to the profits of their business. Whether, in addition to this, any fee was charged for securing employment for their countrymen was not discovered.


The activity of mercantile houses and saloon keepers in influencing their countrymen to come to the community is indicated by a study of the addresses given upon the manifests of steamers by incoming immigrants. An examination of the records at the post-offices in the community revealed the following facts as regards the addresses to which a large number of immigrants destined to these two places were going:

Box 72, a large Macedonian mercantile house.
Box 316, immigrant saloon keeper.

Box 351, Macedonian saloon, lodging, mercantile house.
Boxes 430 and 431. Same as 351.
Box 86. Same as 316.
Box 37, Macedonian mercantile house.

From this exhibit as to the holders of post-office boxes, it is apparent that in almost every case where a large number of immigrants were giving a common destination, the address was that of a saloon keeper or of a mercantile house.

This fact becomes more marked when it is seen that in the majority of cases where a post-office box number is not given, but that of a person or firm, these persons or firms are either the managers of mercantile houses or the mercantile house itself. Moreover, in the answers to the question “Whom going to join ?" it may be said that with few exceptions the destinations given for immigrants are those of mercantile houses or saloons.

The real significance of these facts is doubtful. It may be and probably is true that the mercantile houses and saloon keepers assisted immigrants to come to the community in order to profit in an indirect way by getting them work and securing their patronage after they had secured work. In many cases this is probably true. On the other hand, it must be borne in mind that the address of the mercantile house was the same as that of the four or five hundred immigrants who were living in the rooms which the establishment rents. It may be true, therefore, that a large number of immigrants having a common destination were simply coming to join friends or relatives who had rooms above one of the mercantile houses' storerooms.


This community has under normal conditions, as has been seen, the largest Bulgarian colony in the United States. Before the existing depression, it is estimated that there were 8,000 Bulgarians in the locality. Almost the entire Bulgarian population are single men, or married men who have left their families in Europe. Altogether, there are not over 40 families and about 50 women. The next largest element of foreign population is probably furnished by the Magyars, of whom there is estimated to be more than 1,000 in the two cities. There are, under normal conditions, also between 800 and 1,000 Armenians, between 300 and 500 Servians, and a considerable number of Austrian-Servians, Roumanians, Lithuanians, Poles, Slovaks, and Austrians. The total number of recent immigrants in the two cities is estimated to be 12,000. In addition, there are also a large number of older immigrants, made up principally of Germans and Irish. The total population of the community is estimated to be about 20,000.


In both of the towns proper, the immigrant population is living in sections apart from the natives. The main consideration leading to the location of the immigrant population has been the effort to be near the place of work. In one city of the community they live principally in a long line of rooming houses, situated along the line of the electric railway, which runs parallel to the car-building and repair works. Some of the lodging houses are located almost under the shadow of the car shops and along the main line of an important railroad system. The entire section is unhealthy. The atmosphere, , on account of the proximity to the car shops and railroad, is filled with dust and dirt. The streets even along the electric line are unpaved; here and in the open lots mud and pools of stagnant water abound. On the main streets there are some brick pavements, boardwalks, and cinder paths, but on the side streets there are usually no facilities for walking:

In the American section of the other town or city of the community there are two sections, where between two and three hundred Magyars live in cottages, each cottage usually containing two or three families. Several Armenian boarding houses are also located within the town. Moreover, a few of the educated immigrants of recent arrival live among the Americans, one, an educated Bulgarian, has a family and lives according to the American standard. The older immigrant races, the Germans and Irish, are indistinguishable in living arrangements and in other respects from the purely native stock.

With these few exceptions, the immigrant population of the community lives in a section of its own, separated by the distance of four or five city blocks from each of the two regularly constituted towns. This section, as already noted, has been popularly dubbed “Hungary Hollow." It lies along the tracks of the railroad referred to above, and between the plants of the two steel companies and a short distance from the car shops and the corn products manufacturing establishment. Here the Bulgarians, Magyars, Servians, Roumanians, and Armenians live together, entirely apart from any American influences.



Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-Comparison of occupations of recent immigrants with other occupations—Annual earnings of male heads of families studied- Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders or lodgers-Sources of family income- Relative importance of different sources of family income[Text Tables 587 to 607 and General Tables 328 to 337].



The following tables show the industrial condition and occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming. The exhibit is by race of individual: TABLE 587.- Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more families reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign


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ber re

Race of individual.


Without Work
Work Without Work-


occupa- ing for
occupa- ing for


ing for data. tion, wages.

profit. tion.



ing for

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TABLE 588.-Occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) (This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign


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