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EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The extent of the information received and the source of the statistical material for the general survey in the Middle West is shown in the following table and chart, which set forth the number and per cent of male employees of each race for whom information was secured:

TABLE 555.— Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity

and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Number of male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and race.

[This chart shows only races represented by 100 or more employees.)

GENERAL NATIVITY ANO RACE

600

1200

1800

2400

NATIVE-BORN OF NATIVE FATHER

WHITE
NATIVE-BORN OF FOREIGN FATHERI
BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH OF FATHER

ENGLAND
GERMANY

IRELAND
FOREIGN-BORN, BY RACE

CROATIAN
ENGLISH
FINNISH
GERMAN
IRISH
ITALIAN, NORTH
LITHUANIAN
MACEDONIAN
MAGYAR
POLISH
RUSSIAN
SERVIAN
SLOVAK
SLOVENIAN
SWEDISH
WELSH

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time--[Text Tables 556 to 564 and General Table 313.)

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

As in the case of other localities no satisfactory statistics are available for the Middle West regarding the present or past employment of the various races of recent or older immigration to the iron and steel industry. From the return of the censuses, however, information may be secured as to the general nativity and country of birth of the iron and steel workers which furnishes an instructive insight into the racial movements to the steel establishments of the Middle West. In the following table is shown the nativity of iron and steel employees in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, for the census periods 1880 and 1890, and the country of birth of parents of the employees for the census period 1900:

TABLE 556.- Number of iron and steel workers in the Middle West, by nativity and State,

1900. (Compiled from United States census of 1900, volume not reported. This table does not include the small number of females employed in unimportant positions in the iron and steel manufacturing industry.]

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TABLE 557.— Number of iron and steel workers in the Middle West, by nativity and State,

1890.

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Table 558.— Number of iron and steel workers in the Middle West, by nativity and State,

1880.

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Mention has already been made of the remarkable growth in the number of iron and steel workers in the Middle West and the increase during the period 1880 to 1900 may be readily seen from the above table. In connection with the racial movements to the industry, it is at once evident that the operating forces of the Middle West blast furnaces, rolling mills, and steel works in 1880 and 1890 were composed exclusively of Americans, or immigrants from England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Canada, Germany, Norway and Sweden. After 1890 a change in the racial make-up of the iron and steel workers began and was reflected in a very distinct way in the census returns for 1900. In the table for 1900 it is seen for the first time that a large number of employees were born of parents of Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Russia. As a matter of fact 13,726 of the total increase of 32,494 iron and steel workers during the period 1890 to 1900 were members of races from southern and eastern Europe, a large proportion of the remainder being Irish and Germans. The same general racial changes in the composition of the iron and steel working forces of the Middle Western States during the past thirty years is also shown by the representative iron and steel producing

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