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CHAPTER V.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION. Citizenship-Ability to speak English-Text Tables 577 to 581 and General Tables

322 to 324).

CITIZENSHIP.

The tendency among iron and steel workers of the Middle West toward becoming citizens is set forth in the following table, which shows, by race, the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming. Table 577.Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been

in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian
Bosnian.
Canadian, French.
Canadian, Other
Croatian.
Danish.
Dutch.
Engil-h.
Finnish
French.
Gerinan
Greek..
Hebrew (other than Russian)..
Herzegovinian.
Irish..
Italian, North
Italian, South.
Italian (not specified).
Lithuanian
Macedonian.
Magyar.
Negro..
Norwegian.
Polish.
Russian
Ruthenian
Scotch..
Scotch-Irish
Servian...
Slovak
Slovenian
Swedish
Welsh.
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Total...

8

(a)

18.2 (a)

9.2 (a)

9.1 (a)

23.0

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72
25
5
2
44

2
87

1 21 919 72

2 26

1 12 58 195

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21

1

6 38 34 13

222

6

8 171 69 1 9 4

(a)
(a)

10.3

4.1 77.0

82.1 (a)

14.8 (a)

84

1 61 4

10.3 19.5 15.3

15.5 (a)

4.9 (a)

3

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From the data presented in the preceding table it appears that 38.4 per cent of the total number of 2,679 foreign-born male employees for whom information was secured are fully naturalized, while 13.5 per cent have first papers only. Of the foreign-born races the Irish, Welsh, English, and Swedes, in the order mentioned, have the largest proportion of fully naturalized individuals and the Magyars, Slovenians, and Germans have the largest proportion of individuals who have first papers only.

The increasing interest in political affairs and the growing tendency of the foreign-born employees to become permanently identified with this country after designated periods of residence is exhibited by the following table, which shows, by race and by years in the United States, the present political condition of foreign-born male iron and steel workers who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to the United States:

TABLE 578.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who were 21

years of age or over at time of coming to the United States, by years in the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

In United States 5 to 9

years.

In United States 10 years

or over.

In United States 5

years or over.

Race.

Per cent-
Per cent

Per cent
Number
Number

Number
report-
report-

report-
ing com-

Fully
Having ing com-

Having ing com

Fully plete

Having plete

Fully
first
natural-

first plete

first natural

natural-
data.

data.
papers
ized.

data.
ized.
papers

ized.

papers only. only.

only.

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The data in the preceding table show that, in the case of each of the races for which information was secured, a larger proportion of employees who have been in the United States ten years or over than of employees who have been here from five to nine years are fully naturalized. Upon the other hand, there is a decrease with length of residence in the United States in the proportion of all individuals having first papers only due to the greater number of citizens among the races of long residence. This decrease is particularly noticeable in the case of the English, Germans, and Swedes. Of all employees who have been in the United States five years or over the English and Swedes, in the order mentioned, have the largest and the Slovenians and Croatians the smallest proportion of fully naturalized individuals, and the Slovenians and Germans have the largest and the Croatians the smallest proportion of individuals having the first papers only.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table next presented shows, by race, the per cent of foreignborn male employees of non-English-speaking races who have acquired the ability to speak English. Table 579.Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, how.

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of 7,747 male employees reporting complete data in the preceding table, 51.6 per cent are able to speak English. The Norwegians, followed by the Swedes, Germans, and Bohemians and Moravians, have the largest proportions, while the Greeks, Herzegovinians, Slovenians, and Macedonians in the order named show the smallest proportions able to speak the English language.

The greater progress of younger than of older immigrants in acquiring the use of the English language is shown by the following table which sets forth, by age at time of coming to the United States and race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who now speak English: TABLE 580.- Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by age at time

of coming to the United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however,

is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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The preceding table includes 7,747 male employees. Of this number 98.1 per cent of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States, as compared with 48.2 per cent of those who were 14 years of age or over, speak English at the present time. That ability to speak English is more readily acquired by those who are younger at the time of coming to the United States, is evinced by the fact that, while the proportion of those who were under 14 years of age ranges from 100 per cent, as shown by the Germans, Slovaks, and Swedes each, to 83.3 per cent, as shown by the Magyars, the proportion of those who were 14 years of age or over when they came to the United States ranges from 97.7 per cent, of the Swedes to 11.3 per cent of the Macedonians.

The relation between period of residence and ability to speak English is exhibited by the following table, which shows by years in the United States and race, the per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English: TabLE 581.Per cent of foreign-born male employees who speak English, by years in the

United States and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 100 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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From the data presented in the above table it appears that 24.7 per cent of the foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States under five years, 52.9 per cent of those who have been here from five to nine years, and 86.8 per cent of those who have been here ten years or over speak English. The proportion of employees who have been in the United States under five years who speak English is very much larger for the Swedes than for the individuals of any other race and is smallest for the Macedonians, Slovenians, and Poles. The Swedes, North Italians, Germans, and Slovaks have the largest and the Slovenians the smallest proportions of individuals who have been here from five to nine years who speak English, while, of the employees who have been here ten years or over, all the Swedes and North Italians and a larger proportion of the Germans and Slovaks than of the individuals of any other race speak that language.

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