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The table next presented shows, by race and length of residence in the United States, the comparative weekly earnings of foreign-born male employees who were 18 years of age or over. The several races are arranged under the specified periods of residence.

Table 569.—Comparative earnings per week of foreign-born male employees 18 years of age

or over, by race and length of residence in the United States. *

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more males reporting.)
IN UNITED STATES LESS THAN 5 YEARS.

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* This table shows wages or earnings for the period indicated, but no account is taken of voluntary lost time or lost time from shutdowns or other causes. In the various tables in this report showing annual earnings allowance is made for time lost during the year,

The above table indicates the effect of length of residence in the United States upon the earnings of the individuals of the different races studied. It appears that of the employees in the United States less than five years, the English and Irish have the largest proportion of individuals earning $10 or over, $12.50 or over, $15 or over, $17.50 or over, and $20 or over per week, respectively. In the columns representing earnings of $10 or over, $12.50 or over, and $15 or over per week, respectively, the Swedes closely follow the English and the Irish, who take first rank in earning ability. Among employees who have been in the United States from five to nine years, though the English, Irish, and Swedes still have a larger proportion of individuals earning the higher sums specified than have the employees of any other race, there is a considerable increase in the proportion of individuals of the races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe earning the higher sums. A further increase in the proportion of individuals of races of recent immigration earning $12.50 or over, $15 or over, $17.50 or over, and $20 or over per week, respectively, may be noted among the employees with a residence of' ten years or longer. The English, Irish, and Swedes still have, however, a larger proportion of individuals earning the higher sums specified than have the employees of any other race.

48296°—VOL 9-11-3

CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS. Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of immigrant

employees—Text Tables 570 to 576 and General Tables 317 to 321].

LITERACY.

The following table shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male iron and steel workers in the Middle West who are able to read, and the percentage who are able to read and write: Table 570.- Per cent of male employees who read and per cent who read and urite, by

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

General nativity and race.

Number reporting complete

data.

Per cent who read.

Per cent who read and write.

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Native-hom of native father:

White.

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father:

England.
Germany.
Ireland.
Russia.
Scotland.
Sweden.

Wales.
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Candian (other than French).
Croatian..
English.
Finnish
German.
Greek
Herzegovinian
Irish..
Italian, North.
Lithuanian.
Macedonian
Magyar
Norwegian.
Polish.
Russian.
Scotch.
Servian
Slovak
Slovenian.
Swedish.
Welsh.

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Grand total.
Tota! native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

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From a study of 12,011 male employees, the preceding table shows that 88 per cent are able to read and 86.5 per cent both read and write, leaving 1.5 per cent who read but are unable to write. The native-born employees of foreign father show a larger proportion than is reported by the whites native-born of native father, who in turn show a higher percentage than native-born negroes able to read or to read and write, while the foreign-born iron and steel workers have the smallest proportion with ability to read as well as both to read and write. Of the several races the Canadian other than French, Norwegian, Scotch, and Swedish each shows its entire number to have ability both to read and write. The proportions of the other races who were able to read ranges from 99.3 per cent, as shown by the English, to 70.8 per cent, as shown by the Croatians, while the same races exhibit the largest proportions of those who both read and write. With the exception of the English, Herzegovinian, Slovak, and Welsh, each race has a slightly smaller proportion who both read and write than read only. Those employees native-born of fathers born in Germany and Ireland have less than 1 per cent who neither read nor write, while those nativeborn of Russian father show 100 per cent able to read and 98.2 per cent able both to read and to write. All other native-born employees of foreign father show their entire number to have ability to read and write.

CONJUGAL CONDITION.

The table next presented shows, by general nativity and race, the percentage of male employees in the Middle West 20 years of age or over in each specified conjugal condition: Table 571.- Per cent of male employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition,

by general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.]

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Native-born of native father:

White.

Negro.
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of
father:

England.
Germany
Ireland.
Russia.
Scotland.

Sweden..
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian.
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
Canadian (other than French).
Croatian..
English.
Finnish,
German
Greek
Herzegovinian
Irish.
Italian, North.
Lithunian.
Macedonian.
Magyar
Norwegian
Polish.
Russian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Swedish
Welsh..

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Grand total.
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born.

1,345 3,009 8,377

41.0
33.9
33. 4

56.8
63.8

2. 2 2.3 1.6

65.0

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