Lapas attēli

The preceding table shows that over three-fourt family income is provided by the earnings of the highest proportion is provided by contributions considerably lower percentage is derived from pa or lodgers, while the percentages of income from from the earnings of the wife are very small. N of native father show the earnings of the husba much higher percentage of the total yearly fam the case with foreign-born families; the earnings o stitute a higher percentage of the family income than in the foreign-born families. On the oth tions of children form a high percentage of the tot foreign-born families when contrasted with the from the same source in negro families. The per boarders or lodgers is slightly higher in negro famil the foreign-born, while foreign-born show a very cent of income from other sources than do negroes

Among the foreign-born races, the South Italian per cent of income from earnings of husbands and the The French show the highest percentage of incom wives and the Scotch have no revenue from this: named race shows a very high percentage of income tions of children, while the French have a comparat age of income from this source. Slovak and Fren much higher per cent of income from payments of b than have either Scotch or South Italians, while Fr a considerable per cent of income, as contrasted with sources not specified.



age payments-Regularity of employment-Company houses and indusnities -The company-store system-Relations between employeesiation-Welfare work by the employers-The immigrant and organized or disputes-[Text Tables 685 and 686 and General Table 393].


najority of mines and plants wage payments are made by ar month. In a few the payments are biweekly, and in E one mining company the payments are made daily. This cash payments. The almost universal practice, however, ats in commissary checks or by commissary credit during the ervening between the regular pay days when payments in are made practically amounts to wage payments at any he will of the wage-earner, and in effect nullifies any system yments. "Pay days" thus have become the days on which y or a biweekly statement of the account between employer loyee is rendered, and on which the latter may at his will the cash balance in his favor if any exists after his own s through store accounts, store purchases, and through hospital, and school assessments by the company are made.


t during periods of industrial depression, it is claimed by loyers that the demand for labor in all occupations in the and iron and steel industries is uniformly regular, and that offered is without interruption. This appears to be a true nt of the actual conditions in normal times, with possibly eption of employment offered in the construction departf the larger plants and mines, which depends upon causes ed to a large degree to the ordinary run of operation. Another n, too, may be noted in the case of the smaller mines, whose is for domestic consumption and which is not affected by ons to any considerable extent. A third exception, of is found in periods of labor disputes.

table next presented shows, by general nativity and race of ual, the months worked during the past year by males 16 of age or over in the households studied, who were employed rom home.

296°-VOL 9-11-13


TABLE 685.-Months worked during the past year by males 16 year away from home, by general nativity and race of in


[This table includes only races with 20 or more males reporting. The totals,

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The preceding table shows that of the 1,273 male per cent worked twelve months during the past yea worked nine months or over, 83.7 per cent worked over, and 97.9 per cent worked three months or ove native-born of native father show 49 per cent who year, as contrasted with only 28.9 per cent of those w born of foreign father and 13.8 per cent of the fore negroes native-born of native father also show a his who worked nine months or over and six months or o those native-born of foreign father or those who wer All those who were native-born of foreign father worke or over, while the negroes native-born of native fath eign-born show somewhat smaller proportions who w like period. Of the foreign-born, the French and So highest and Bulgarians and Macedonians the lowest p worked twelve months during the year. The Fr Scotch, South Italians, and Poles, in the order name per cent or over who worked nine months or over d year. The Macedonians show the smallest proportion during this period of time. The Slovaks, French, and show over 90 per cent who worked six months or over, with 61.1 per cent of the Macedonians. All of the 1 Italians, and Scotch worked three months or over, whi Slovaks, Bulgarians, South Italians, Macedonians, and as named with decreasing proportions, the last-named 91.7 per cent.


Throughout the Birmingham district there exists or colony of employees around every plant and mine mines. These communities are more or less distinct fro

and villages, the essential difference between them former are residential sections for the laborers, while st largely as commercial centers for the immediate

The industrial communities differ from each other except in the style and the arrangement of the houses. d steel plants the communities are considerably larger nines, although this varies with the size of the indir plant. In each community, in addition to the rows ouses arranged on either side of streets if the land is lar enough, is a commissary or company store which is , the churches or church, two schools (one for negroes whites), and usually a lodge house used for secret or eetings. In the smallest communities one building is d for the school, lodge, and church. The office of the pany, with its pay window, is an important feature, nediate vicinity is the mine or the plant.

of the company houses vary with the company owning general rule the company houses of the mining villages cheaply constructed, while around the steel plants ly a variety of grades for the different classes of workallest and poorest being usually occupied by negroes. ning camps the houses are well built and well kept, as , although occupied chiefly by negroes. Where immisouthern and eastern Europe are employed the large se, with its two stories and its larger number of rooms, occurrence. With scarcely an exception the villages arisome sameness to the eye. The houses are of the nd are separated by open spaces of equal size. A uniof gardens and yards under cultivation or care, with o fencing, renders the whole situation bare and unincoal dust and smoke tend to reduce everything to a r, and probably have much to do with the absence of toward improving the yards or utilizing the garden e is little external evidence of any encouragement of , a fact which emphasizes the tendency on the part of es of all races to get all their pleasures out of what their


is unquestionably the inevitable impression when the munity is viewed, several attempts have been made iding a greater degree of comfort on the part of the panies. In the larger communities around the steel are sewers and water supply, and the houses are kept carefully repaired. The offer for lumber for fencing at company to the employees is accepted by some, and a yard or a garden is seen with a fence of some descripstreets are never improved, however, and only in rare alks are found. On the whole, however, the disadvanot as much of an insanitary nature as of an unsightly The communities are usually placed with care as to inage; there is an abundance of open space and never ng of houses or buildings, and they are accessible to the

of the tenants could be made homelike, while the gardens and the care of the yards could not onl appearance of the individual house as well as of t. would serve to assist in the provision of vegetabl for the food of the tenants. It is claimed by t there has never been any disposition to take adva offered, and this statement is undeniably true. regarding the matter, laborers have said that it was or that they did not know how long they were to ground was too poor.

The foregoing presents a picture of average d exist generally throughout the Birmingham distric communities, which are in coal-mining sections, worse; the houses are smaller and more cheaply almost a total absence of any attempt to prov veniences except of the rudest nature; less attention them in repair, and whitewash is rarely applied ever; the communities, as a whole, present an un quate condition of living. In the newer and la in and around the iron and steel plants and the pri operations the situation is much better. An excelle example of the latter is found in the housing cond which is the largest community in the district. En miles from Birmingham, but by a recent legislative within the corporate limits of the city.

The company quarters here are located on a sl the outskirts of Ensley, adjoining the yards of the s separates the quarters from the principal residen district of the town. Occupancy of company hous dition prerequisite to employment, but in selecting a grant is usually governed by three considerations rental, presence of fellow-countrymen, and proxim employment. The first of these usually exerts the g which has resulted in approximately 75 per cent of occupying the company houses, which are usually at a lower rate than houses obtained from othe houses occupied are painted, weather-boarded, fran one story, divided into two apartments of two room with dressed lumber, and provided in front with Provision for heat for each apartment is made by a in the center of the building. Water is obtained from side of the house, one hydrant being provided for eve Water-closets built of rough lumber are placed in buildings in the ratio of one closet to every twelve closets are divided by partitions into twelve stalls or are flushed by a stream of water that flows throug A public bath for the use of the employees is also monthly rental of $10.50 for each house, or $5.25 for is charged to the tenant.

These houses are occupied almost altogether by in native whites. In the section of the company quarters o negroes the houses are smaller and less substantial in

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