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PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN EMPLOYEES AND MEMBERS OF THEIR HOUSEHOLDS.

The following table, showing by race the percentage of foreignborn male employees in the United States each specified number of years, affords a valuable insight into the racial movements to the district as well as into the periods of residence in this country of the foreign-born iron and steel workers:

TABLE 662.-Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Upon information obtained for 1,093 foreign-born persons in this locality, it will be seen that 69.5 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 11.5 per cent from five to nine, and 11.2 per cent twenty years or over, while 3.4 and 4.4 per cent have been in the United States from ten to fourteen and fifteen to nineteen years, respectively. All of the Bulgarians, and 98.4 per cent of the Greeks, have been in the United States under five years. The proportion of the South Italians-77.9 per cent-with a residence of less than five years, is slightly in excess of that shown by the North Italians and largely in excess of that shown by the Swedes. The Swedes, in turn, with 42.1 per cent, show a considerably larger proportion than the Scotch and a much larger proportion than the English, who show but 14.6 per cent as having been in the United States under five years. The English, however, show a slightly larger proportion, with a residence of from five to nine years, than do the North Italians or South Italians, a considerably larger proportion than do the Scotch, but a slightly smaller proportion than the Swedes, who report 21.1 per cent. The proportion of Greeks, or 1.6 per cent, in this period of residence group is, as compared with the proportions of the other races, very low. No Bulgarians, English, or Greeks, and only small proportions of the other races, have been in the United States from ten to fourteen years; the Swedes, with 8.8 per cent, showing the largest, and the Scotch the smallest proportion, or 2.3 per cent. The Swedes, with 12.3 per cent, also show the largest proportion with a residence of from fifteen to nineteen years, a proportion larger than that shown by the English or Scotch, and considerably in excess of that shown by the North Italians or

South Italians. No Bulgarians or Greeks, only 1 per cent of the South Italians, 2.8 per cent of the North Italians, and 15.8 per cent of the Swedes, as compared with 51.2 per cent of the Scotch and 58.3 per cent of the English, have been in the United States twenty

years or over.

The following table shows, by race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born persons in the households studied who had been in the United States each specified number of years:

TABLE 663.—Per cent of foreign-born persons in the United States each specified number of years, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 20 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]

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Of 1,870 persons reporting, 63.9 per cent have been in the United States under five years, 81.8 per cent have a residence of under ten years, and 92.1 per cent have been in this country under twenty years. The Greeks, Macedonians, and Bulgarians show over 97 per cent, the South Italians, North Italians, and Poles over 50 per cent, and the English and the Slovaks show less than 20 per cent who have been in the United States under five years. The Greeks and Macedonians show all persons as having been in the United States under ten years, and Bulgarians show only slightly smaller proportions, while English and Scotch show low proportions in this group. The Bulgarians, Greeks, and Macedonians show 100 per cent who have been in the United States under twenty years.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The following table shows the number and percentage of male iron and steel workers of each race in the Birmingham district for whom information was secured:

TABLE 664.-Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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Of the 5,477 male employees in this locality, for whom information was secured, 20 per cent are foreign-born, 31.8 per cent are nativeborn of native father, white; 44 per cent are native-born of native father, negro; and 4.2 per cent are native-born of foreign father. Those whose fathers were born in Ireland, Germany, Scotland, and England have the largest representatives among the native-born of foreign father. Of the foreign-born, the South Italians, Greeks, North Italians, Bulgarians, and Swedes are present in the largest numbers. It will be noted that the South Italians are present in much larger numbers than the individuals of any other foreign race.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Industrial condition abroad of members of immigrant households studied-Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States-General occupation of women at the present time in the households studied-General occupation of males at the present time in the households studied-Weekly earnings-Relation between period of residence and earning ability-Annual earnings of male heads of families studied-Annual earnings of males 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Annual family income-Wives at work-Annual earnings of females 18 years of age or over in the households studied-Relation between the earnings of husbands and the practice of wives of keeping boarders and lodgers-Sources of family income-Relative importance of different sources of family income-[Text Tables 665 to 684 and General Tables 380 to 392].

INDUSTRIAL CONDITION ABROAD OF MEMBERS OF IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS STUDIED.

Before examining the present industrial condition of immigrant iron and steel workers in the Birmingham district the economic. status while abroad of members of immigrant households studied may be briefly considered. In this connection the following tables show the industrial condition and occupation before coming to the United States of foreign-born females in the households studied who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming. The presentation is by race of individual.

TABLE 665.-Industrial condition before coming to the United States of foreign-born females who were 16 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table includes only races with 20 or more females reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

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TABLE 666.-Occupation before coming to the United Stat who were 16 years or over at time of coming, by race

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Upon information secured from 344 females, it per cent were without occupation abroad, leavin cent who had employment. Of those who had per cent of the total number worked for wages, a the total number worked without wages. None worked for profit. Of the four races specified, Fre Scotch, and Slovak, none were employed as farm total number of French females reporting, 5.4 per c in domestic service, as compared with 0.5 per cent ians and 2.1 per cent of the Slovaks. None of th reporting were employed in domestic service for w Italian is the only race reporting any females who wages in hand trades, and of this race the propor was only 0.5 per cent. None of the French or So employed for wages in occupations other than tho ated, but of the Scotch reporting the proportion so per cent, as compared with 4.2 per cent of the Slo race reporting any females who were employed abro is the Slovak, which shows 6.3 per cent of the to were thus employed as farm laborers.

The tables next presented show, by race of individu condition and occupation before coming to the Unit eign-born males in the households studied who were or over at time of arrival in the United States.

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