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TABLE 638.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified

number of years, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The tolal, bowever, is for all foreign-born.)

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As regards the 1,788 foreign-born male employees, concerning whom information was obtained in this locality, 60 per cent have been in the l'nited States under five years. Only 8.7 per cent have been in the United States under one year, while 18.2, 17.7, 10.3, and 5.1 per cent have been in the United States one, two, three, and four years, respectively. Of those who have been in the United States for a longer period, 12.5 have a residence of from five to nine, 4.4 a residence of from ten to fourteen, 5.5 from fifteen to nineteen, and 17.6 per cent a residence of twenty years or over. No Swedes or Germans and only 1 per cent of the English and 1.2 per cent of the Irish, as compared with 20.3 per cent of the Greeks and slightly smaller proportions of the Russians and South Italians, have been in the United States under one year. The Bulgarians, 68.3 per cent of whom have been in the United States one year, show a considerably larger proportion with this period of residence than do the Greeks and a very much larger proportion than do the Russians, South Italians, or North Italians, the last named reporting 22.1 per cent. No Irish, Lithuanians, or Scotch, and only 1.5 per cent of the Germans and 2 per cent of the English, report a residence of one year. The proportions of English, Irish, and German with a residence of two and three years, as contrasted with the proportions of the other races, are very low. No Bulgarians, and only 1.2 per cent of the Irish, as compared with 15.2 per cent of the Slovaks and 12.5 per cent of the Lithuanians, report in the four-year group. The proportions of the other races with this period of residence range from 7.8 per cent of the North Italians to 2.1 per cent of the Russians.

The Greeks, Russians, and Irish again show very small proportions, as compared with the other races, with a residence of from five to nine years, while the Slovaks, with 27.8 per cent, closely followed by the Lithuanians, show comparatively large proportions. "No Greeks have been in the United States longer than nine and no Russians longer than fourteen years. The Russians report the smallest proportion with a residence of fourteen years, while the Lithuanians, with 10.4 per cent, report the largest. As regards those who have been in he United States from fifteen to nineteen years, the Germans, with 15.7 per cent, show a slightly larger proportion than the Swedes, Poles, English, or Irish, and a considerably larger proportion than any of the other races. Only 1 per cent of the South Italians and only very small proportions of the other races of recent immigration have been in the United States twenty years or over. The proportions of the Irish, English, Germans, and Scotch with this period of residence range from 71.8 to 48.5 per cent.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The racial composition of the operating forces of the industry in the South at the present time is set forth in the following table, which shows the number and percentage of male employees of each race for whom information was secured: TABLE 639.— Male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and

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In comparing the totals of the preceding table, the significant feature disclosed is the large proportion of native-born employees as compared with the foreign-born and the native-born of foreign father. The white employees, native-born of native father, form 32.6 per cent of the total number furnishing information, and the negroes of the same nativity group, 39.1 per cent. On the other hand, the employees of native birth but of foreign father constitute only 6.9 per cent and the foreign-born 21.5 per cent of the total. The principal races of foreign birth employed in the South and furnishing information for the preceding table are the South Italians, Greeks, Slovaks, Russians, and Germans, and the second generation is made up principally of Germans and Irish.

CHAPTER III.

ECONOMIC STATUS.

Principal occupation of immigrant employees before coming to the United States

Weekly earnings—[Text Tables 640 to 642 and General Tables 364 to 366].

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION OF IMMIGRANT EMPLOYEES BEFORE COMING

TO THE UNITED STATES.

The extent of the training received before coming to the United States by the immigrants now in the iron and steel industry in the South is set forth in the following table, which shows, by race, the percentage of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before coming to the United States. Table 640.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in each specified occupation before

coming to the United States, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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The above table shows that of the 1,501 foreign-born male employees in this locality for whom information was obtained a much larger proportion (47.6 per cent) were employed in farming or in farm labór than in any other occupation before coming to the United States; 20.4 per cent were employed in general labor, 8.9 per cent in hand trades, 2.5 per cent in trade, and 9.1 per cent in occupations other than specified, while only 9.2 and 2,5 per cent, respectively, were employed in the manufacture of iron and steel and in other manufacturing

Not any Greeks, less than 1 per cent each of the South Italians and Russians, and only 6.3 per cent of the Slovaks, as compared with 34.1 per cent of the Germans, were employed in the manufacture of iron and steel abroad. The Germans in other manufacturing, as in the manufacture of iron and steel, show a considerably larger proportion than is shown by the other races. The proportion of Ger

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