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PART IV.-IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN THE

SOUTH.

GENERAL SURVEY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Territory covered-Employees for whom information was secured-Preparation of data [Text Table 633 and General Table 362].

TERRITORY COVERED.

In making a study of the iron and steel workers in the Southern States, the investigation was confined to furnaces and mills of Maryland and Alabama for two reasons: (1) The iron and steel industry is more important in these States than in any others of the South with the possible exception of Kentucky, and (2) Alabama and Maryland are the only two States in which persons of foreign birth are extensively employed. In the remaining iron and steel producing localities in the southern territory native white and negro labor is almost exclusively used.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

The intensive investigation of households was limited to Alabama and the information secured is presented in connection with the study of the Birmingham district. Detailed information was obtained for 8,325 individual iron and steel workers in Maryland and Alabama. The number reporting, when compared with the total number employed, is considered sufficiently large to render the statistics presented representative.

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The following table and its accompanying chart show the number and percentage of male employees of each race studied:

TABLE 633.-Male employees for whom information was secured by general nativity and

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Number of male employees for whom information was secured, by general nativity and race.

[This chart shows only races represented by 100 or more employees.]

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PREPARATION OF DATA.

In preparing this study for publication it was considered advisable to set forth, as in other localities, the salient facts relative to the immigrant iron and steel workers in a general survey based upon the information received from employees. To this has been added a detailed study of the Birmingham district, setting forth the economic and other effects of immigration upon the southern iron and steel

center.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration-Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time-[Text Tables 634 to 639 and General Table 363].

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

Data showing in detail the history of immigration to the iron and steel industry in the South according to race are not available. Information of considerable value in this connection is supplied, however, by the reports of the United States Census, showing in a general way the composition of the working forces of the furnaces and steel mills in the years 1880, 1890, and 1900. These statistics are presented in the following tables:

TABLE 634.-Number of iron and steel workers in the South, by nativity and State, 1900.a [Compiled from United States census report, 1900.]

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1,717

94

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569 1,450 225 1,604
805

372 29 45 1,478 262]

80 342 122 1,058 335 2,013
16 13 25 168 125

9,609

197 3,535

2,089 123 614 2.928 487 2,409
600 10 12 9 82 178 126
645 48 90 40 1,242 107 1,173
3,654 154 457 196 2,550 745 3,509 23,698

96 355 147 1,226 460 2,210 13, 144

351 18 27 583 48 4,439 39 281 370 36 6,879 180 922 3,881 571

2,044

8,510

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230 292 314

5,316

20 12

10

271

Persons of mixed parentage..

Persons of native parentage..

6,151 134 849 1,820 261 2,248 128 432 162 2,300 441 3, 185 18, 111

This table does not include the small number of females employed in unimportant positions in connection with the iron and steel manufacturing industry.

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