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When the steel industry was first established in South Chicago in 1887, the workmen were principally Americans, English, Germans, and Welsh, together with a few Belgians and Dutch. During the ten years following the starting into operation of the steel mills considerable numbers of Scandinavians, together with a few Bohemians and Poles, were given employment. The Poles first settled in South Chicago during the latter part of the decade 1870 to 1880, and immigration became large in the early eighties and continued so until about 1893. After the country began to revive from the industrial depression of 1893 and 1894, this immigration was even larger than in the previous years. The financial depression of 1907 stopped this movement and at present only small numbers of Poles are arriving. About 1880 the first Bohemians settled in South Chicago, but seem to have come, not from Bohemia, but from the city of Chicago, and were attracted by the opportunities for employment in South Chicago. This immigration practically stopped in 1893. A few Lithuanians arrived in 1890, but not many until 1896 and after.
A few Slovaks and Magyars came in 1892, but the immigration of these races did not attain any importance until several years later. The Croatians began to come in 1893, but this immigration was not large until 1897 or 1898. Roumanians arrived in 1904, and Servians, Turks, North and South Italians, Bulgarians, and Macedonians in 1905 and 1906. The Scandinavians began to leave the steel mills about 1894 in order to purchase small farm and return to the occupation which they had followed abroad. By the year 1900 practically all of the Scandinavian workmen had disappeared.
It is estimated that there are at present 15,000 Poles in Toledo. The arrival of this race dates from 1850, when a few single men came to Toledo to work in the lumber yards. In 1868, 10 families, and in 1870, 25 families, came directly from their native land in response to advertisements for labor. Other families migrated to the city from various sections of the United States and in 1874 the number of Polish families had increased to 150. Their immigration. directly from Europe also steadily increased. In 1876, when the first Polish church was erected in the city, there were 300 Polish families, and by 1890 the number was not far below 1,300. At the present time the number of Polish families is estimated at 4,500. During the past few years only a few Poles have come directly from their
native land to the city, the principal additions to the population from outside sources consisting of Poles from other localities in the United States.
The Magyars first came to Toledo about 1890, and until 1907 there was a steady, though not very large, influx of members of this race. Practically all were from the province of Abang in Hungary. The estimated number in the city at present is 1,800, comprising about 500 families.
The Slovaks have been seeking employment in Toledo during the past fifteen years, but not to any great extent, as the probable number in the city to-day is somewhere near 800 all told, comprising some 200 families. The population of the city also includes about 2,000 Russian Hebrews who have been coming to Toledo since 1898, and a considerable number of whom are employed in the mills or at the ore docks. A very small number of Bulgarians, who have arrived in Toledo during the past four years, are also at work in the steel mills and furnaces. The small numbers of Greeks and Italians in the city are not employed in connection with the steel industry, but are engaged chiefly in small business enterprises.
This city was founded in 1906, and has been built according to plans formulated for the purpose of making it the "model steel town of the United States." The property of the local steel company, the mills of which furnish employment to the male population of working age, extends for a distance of 7 miles east and west on Lake Michigan and from Lake Michigan to the limits of the town on the south. From an industrial standpoint the community is important, because it probably represents a movement toward the localization on the southern shores of Lake Michigan of the production of steel on a large scale. As regards the city from the point of view of immigration, it is significant for the reason that it furnishes an example of an industrial community of recent growth of which the larger part of the population and working force is composed of representatives of races of recent immigration from southern and eastern Europe. According to conservative estimates the total population of Gary in 1909 was estimated to be 15,000, composed of the following races: American, German, Irish, English,
Bulgarian and Macedonian..
From the above estimate it will be seen that the Croatians largely predominate over the other more recent immigrant races.
was also the first of this class to be employed here. They came in the summer of 1906 and were first employed in clearing the land for the town site. They were followed in the fall of the same year by the Italians, who worked principally on the railroad tracks in this imme
diate vicinity. It is claimed, however, that there are only about onesixth as many Italians here now as then. Since the fall of 1906 there has been such a continual stream of the other races that it is impossible for those most conversant with the history of the town to specify which were the first to arrive. The majority of the more recent immigrants did not come directly from Europe, but migrated from Youngstown and Lorain, Ohio, and Lackawanna, N. Y.
GRANITE CITY AND MADISON, ILL.
These two cities, which are merged to form practically one industrial center, afford, as in the case of Gary, Ind., a striking illustration of a community largely composed of recent immigrants, which has grown up within a few years around the steel industry. The present site of Granite City and Madison, which is on the Illinois side of the Mississippi several miles north of East St. Louis and within sight of St. Louis proper, in 1892 was an unbroken stretch of cornfields. The construction of rolling mills was begun on the present location of the two cities in 1892, and when the plant started operations in 1894 the employees consisted of Americans, English, Irish, Scotch, and Welsh and a small number of Poles who came from St. Louis. Shortly afterwards a plant for manufacturing granite and metal ware was built, and the majority of the operatives of this establishment also was composed of English-speaking and German races. A considerable number of negroes were also employed in the two local enterprises, and until 1900 no other recent immigrants, except the Poles already mentioned, appeared in the community.
In 1896 a large steel plant, however, including blast furnaces, rolling mills, and foundries, was established in the community, and in 1901 another plant of the same description began operations. Four years later a company located a plant in Madison for the purpose of building and repairing wooden and steel cars and offered employment to about 3,000 men. About the same time a large cornproducts refining establishment located in Granite City and added to the demand for labor. As a consequence, the local sources of labor supply after 1900 were inadequate, and recent immigrants of races from southern and eastern Europe were attracted to the locality. In 1900 Slovaks from St. Louis were employed in considerable numbers, and two years later Magyars and Croatians arrived. Mixed groups of Roumanians, Greeks, and Servians followed. By 1904 the immigrant population of the two cities was approximately as follows:
During the two years 1904 and 1905 there set in a heavy tide of Bulgarian immigration. Small numbers of this race first came from
localities in Ohio, and new arrivals quickly advised their friends and relatives at home as to the existing opportunities for work. In the spring of 1905, 900 Bulgarians were employed in the local industrial plants and by the autumn of the same year 1,500 had arrived. The influx steadily continued and in 1907 there were 8,000 Bulgarians at work in the two cities. The industrial depression of that year was first felt in Granite City and Madison during the spring of 1908 and resulted in the closing down of the iron and steel manufacturing establishments and the throwing out of employment of the Bulgarians, who were principally employed as unskilled laborers in those plants. A considerable number returned to Europe and the others found work in other localities or on railroad construction work in the Northwest. In May, 1908, the number of Bulgarians in the two cities was about 2,000 and two years later it had dwindled to 700. The other races of recent immigration, consisting mostly of married men with families, who had been employed for a longer period than the Bulgarians, remained in the community. The revival of the local industries has witnessed a return to the conditions existing before the depression, and it is expected that the establishment of normal conditions will see a return of the previous Bulgarian population.
DE KALB, ILL.
This city, which is extensively engaged in the manufacture of wire, is the birthplace of the barbed-wire industry, the manufacture of that product having been started in De Kalb during the early part of the decade, 1870 to 1880. De Kalb is located in a farming community in which the Swedes have resided for a long time and in large numbers. Consequently, when the local wire industry was in its infancy, Americans and Swedes almost exclusively were employed. As the manufacturing of barbed wire expanded it became necessary to secure labor from outside sources, the first labor to be brought to the city consisting of a number of Finns, who were brought from a wire and nail plant in Worcester, Mass., by a former superintendent who had taken charge of the De Kalb plant. The Finns came to the city during the early part of the decade, 1890 to 1900, and the next arrivals were the Lithuanians, who were seeking work in the wire mills in considerable numbers by 1897. The Croatians followed in 1899; the Herzegovinians and Montenegrins in 1900; Bosnians during the two years 1902 and 1903, and the Greeks in 1907. The Bosnians and Greeks have never been strongly represented in the city, and the Italians and Macedonians, although they have been employed from time to time, have never remained. There has been an entire absence of Germans and Irish in any considerable numbers. According to careful estimates the proportion of each race at present employed in the wire industry in De Kalb may be stated as follows:
PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN
The tables next submitted show, by race, the per cent of foreignborn male employees in the United States each specified number of years. The two tables are identical, except that the table first presented divides the residence of employees who have been in this country less than five years into smaller periods.
The following table shows the per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States each specified number of years, by race:
TABLE 562.—Per cent of foreign-born male employees in the United States under 1 year, 1 year, 2 years, etc., by race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 40 or more males reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.]
Of 8,598 employees who reported, 2 per cent have been in the United States under one year, 3 per cent have a residence of one year, 13.2 per cent have been in this country two years, 12.1 per cent three years, and 8.8 per cent have been in the United States four years.
No English, Macedonians, Servians, or Welsh have a residence of under one year, and less than 1 per cent of Croatians, Irish, and Lithuanians have been in this country under one year. Greeks show the greatest proportion in this group, which is 7.1 per cent, followed by Magyars and Finns. In the group of employees with a residence of one year, Macedonians show 43.5 per cent and Bulgarians 35.6 per cent, which is greatly in excess of the percentage of any other race. Bohemians and Moravians, Canadians other than French, and Welsh show no persons in this group. Greeks show 57.1 per cent and Mace