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force, and the ultimate factors of control and determination are in the hands of certain leaders, the heads of mercantile houses, who largely direct the community's affairs by the influences they are able to exert through their various interests.

CHURCHES AND CHURCH WORK.

There are no distinctly foreign churches in the community that have been erected and maintained by recent immigrants. The Bulgarians projected and partly constructed a Greek Catholic church, but it was found necessary to discontinue the work on account of the industrial depression. The building is extensive and when completed will cost between $20,000 and $30,000. About $10,000 has been already expended in its erection.

Two Protestant churches maintain alien missionaries at good salaries, who work among the recent immigrants.

The recent immigrants, as a rule, seem to be very lax in their adherence to and support of the church. This is in large measure to be accounted for on the ground that during the recent struggles for liberty and greater personal and civil privileges in their home countries the orthodox church supported the old institutions and rules, and, as a consequence, alienated the population.

CHAPTER IX.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Ownership of homes-Schools-Citizenship-Ability to speak English-[Text Tables

628 to 632 and General Tables 356 to 361).

OWNERSHIP OF HOMES.

The following table shows the number and percentage of families owning homes, by general nativity and race of head of family:

TABLE 628.— Number and per cent of families owning home, by general nativity and race

of head of family.

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From the above table it will be seen that, of a total of 50 families, only 12 per cent are shown as owning homes. Of the two races appearing in the table the Magyar is the only one reporting a sufficient number for computation, 10.6 per cent of the households of this race having acquired their own homes.

SCHOOLS.

Both of the towns of the community are well supplied with school facilities, the largest having a high-school building, the erection of which cost $50,000. There are also two parochial schools conducted by the Lutheran and orthodox Catholic churches.

Because of the fact that there are few families and children among recent immigrants the school attendance of Bulgarians and other races of southeastern Europe is, comparatively speaking, small. There are at present 10 students of recent arrival,“from 18 to 20 years, attending the public schools in the community. Two of these are in the fifth grade and eight in the second grade. Before the industrial depression and the recent exodus there were 25 in the graded schools who had recently come to the United States. The alien missionaries maintained by the local Protestant churches in addition to their other duties teach the Bulgarians and other foreigners English on Sunday afternoons. One missionary also maintains a day and night school, where English and other branches are taught to the newcomers, and a small tuition fee charged. The recent immigrants as a rule are very anxious to learn English and oftentimes when visited in their rooms are found to be laboriously studying alone. This tendency does not indicate primarily any desire to become Americans in the full sense of the term, but in a large degree is an economic motive growing out of the realization that they must know the language in order to find full play for their energies in the United States and to work out fully their own economic welfare.

CITIZENSHIP.

The table presented below shows, by race of individual, the present political condition of foreign-born males, in the households studied, who had been in the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming to this country. . TABLE 629.- Present political condition of foreign-born males who have been in the United

States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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In the total of 12 Bulgarians furnishing complete data for the above table, none are fully naturalized and only one has secured first papers. Of the Magyars, none are fully naturalized, but 5 of the total of 28, or 17.9 per cent, have secured their first papers.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH,

The Magyar and Slovak men can practically all speak English. Their wives usually can not, or only to a very limited extent, because they do not come in constant contact with Americans, and the native language is spoken in the home. The children in these and other immigrants' families, as well as the young boys who have immigrated alone, can usually speak English fluently.

The Servians, Roumanians, Bulgarians, and Armenians as a rule do not speak English. Not more than 5 in 100 can speak English so as to make themselves understood, and a smaller percentage than this can speak the language intelligently and fluently.

The following table shows, by sex and by general nativity and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over, in the

, households studied, who are able to speak English:

TABLE 630.--Per cent of persons 6 years of age or over who speak English, by sex and

general nativity and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.) [This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The totals, how

ever, are for all non-English-speaking races.)

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The preceding table shows the significant fact that only 6.8 per cent of the Bulgarians are able to speak English. A relatively more favorable showing is made by the Magyars, but even in the case of this race only 29.5 per cent of the males and 18.2 per cent of the females, or 26.9 per cent of the total, speak English.

The greater aptitude and progress of the younger immigrants, as compared with the older, in acquiring the English language is exhibited in the following table, which shows, by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual, the percentage of persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who

6 speak English:

TABLE 631.-Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English,

by age at time of coming to the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

[This table ir cludes only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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As can be readily seen from the preceding table, the number of the Bulgarians who were under 14 years of age at the time of their arrival in the United States is too small for computation of percentage, and consequently no comparison can be made between those under 14 with those over 14 at the time of their immigration to this country. On the other hand, a much larger proportion of the Magyars who were less than 14 years old when they came to the United States are at present able to speak English, as compared with those who were 14 years old or over at the time of their arrival.

The relation between period of residence and ability to speak English is set forth in the following table, which shows, according to years in the United States and race of individual, the per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over, in the households studied, who speak English. TABLE 632.--Per cent of foreign-born persons 6 years of age or over who speak English,

by years in the United States and race of individual.

(STUDY OF HOUSEHOLDS.)

(By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 40 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

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The foregoing table shows in a pronounced way in the case of both the Bulgarians and Magyars an increase in ability to speak English corresponding to the period of residence in the United States. Only 5.4 per cent of the Bulgarians who have been in the United States less than 5 years are able to speak English, while 47.1 per cent of a residence between five and nine years have acquired the use of the language. Twenty and nine-tenths per cent of the Magyars who have been in the country under five years, 48.7 per cent of a residence between five and nine years, and 62.5 per cent of a residence ten years or over are able to speak English.

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