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orking connections are maintained with similar institutions polis, Chicago, and New York, and with some banks abroad reign banking association. By means of these connections, hange are sold and cashed on all domestic and foreign points. alien laborers are also cashed. The deposits come not only immigrants residing in the community but from others in of the country, even as far west as the Pacific Coast. The by which they are made productive could not be clearly d. The custom seems to be to lend the funds to aliens n business undertakings in the locality, to use them in the of the concern itself, or to lend them to other immigrant and anks. As the recent immigrant is likely to be thrifty, his a the aggregate are considerable and are allowed to accurom month to month without being subject to numerous The profits arising from the control and use of these savings e item in the combined profits of the mercantile houses. The the deposits may be judged from the fact that one of the migrant banks in Hungary Hollow usually carries $25,000


banking establishments are equipped with all the modern including adding machines and typewriters with the charace Bulgarian alphabet. While they usually have large safes, without vaults and the cash reserve is usually deposited in banks in the community. A large number of the banks are d by men who have had experience in practical banking in or Turkey. There are some small banks of a crude "wild t. They are not responsible institutions, but are practically d by one person in whom other aliens have confidence and om they leave their money for safekeeping. The person or receiving the money usually puts it into some business in is interested. A number of such banks, at the outbreak of at industrial depression, were unable to return the money left m and were discredited. Another banker of the same kind e money which he received in building a large mercantile ich he failed to conduct successfully and which is now in the I his creditors.

mercantile house operates in conjunction with its other one or more saloons. These saloons in their appointments he liquors sold are a reproduction of the American institution. ion to the bar there is usually a large open space filled with nd chairs, and the larger part of the patronage comes from ho occupy these seats. A billiard and pool room-usually les alone is operated by the saloon keeper either in the same djoining room. A large part of the business of the saloon om the sale of intoxicants-usually beer-in quantities to the f all nationalities who are in the habit of drinking beer with od. The direct patronage of the saloon comes from the Auservian, and Magyar, and to a less extent the Croatian. These ink in saloons and are also the cause of a great deal of disorder. lgarians as a rule do not drink in saloons except on holidays or occasions. They consume beer chiefly with their meals at

individual member of these recog

The mercantile houses also go so far as to pr amusement and recreation. The greater numbe their building large assembly halls, containing a scenery and equipment of the usual kind. Am performances are given on these stages. Each w dance, and the dance and play are usually given corner of the room a bar is located and the mer drinks of all kinds during the play or the dance. saloon and dance hall, one mercantile house condu den during the warm weather. There all nation mingle together, drink and talk, and sing the son countries. American amusement resorts, such a exhibitions and the theater, are also patronized In their homes and rooms one or more men are u can play on some musical instrument of their nativ these musicians gather together in groups to form a play together in the streets of the foreign section or There was no direct evidence to the effect th houses were conducting employment agencies and the various houses vigorously denied that they we


At the same time it was evident that they were 1 in controlling public opinion, and in bringing ab changes in the population or the labor supply. advisory capacity, to say the least, in writing and for aliens to come to the community. In these serv they were acting in a disinterested way. It was ap that the existence of a large and more or less sta added greatly to the profits of their business. Whe any fee was charged for securing employment for th was not discovered. There is no doubt that all the managers kept themselves informed as to the dem other localities-especially in railroad construction correspondence with contractors who were desir workmen was carried on by the mercantile estab usual procedure was to make known privately or at the contents of these letters and to advise with the accepting work elsewhere.

A number of private labor agents were also encou Chicago and Cincinnati labor agencies published a the alien press and had representatives in the comm

No detailed information was sought as to the pr tile establishments, but several examples of their rap business and the extent of their property holdings siderable light upon this point. One of the leading in Hungary Hollow was started four years ago by ordinary unskilled laborer, who had saved $90. Thi inal capital invested. The company now operates dry goods store, a coffee house, bakery, saloon, and and other agencies, and rents about 100 rooms. housed in one large brick building, one stone bu frame building. These buildings have been paid for of of the business and are worth about $40,000. The owns eight cottages. valued at $1.500 each. and which a

ns the semiweekly newspaper and conducts a restaurant. ment and stocks of its various concerns at a very conservaate must be worth more than $10,000. Its receipts from , exclusive of its general credit and cash business, were .000 each monthly pay day. At the time of the panic of rried $25,000 in deposits, and since the existing depression of its depositors have been paid in full.

- typical illustration is furnished by the establishment of rians from Macedonia. These men started a small bakery ago and since that time have extended their business to bank, saloon, grocery, dry goods store, mineral baths, agency, assembly rooms, etc. They also rent over 100 ms and have recently established a branch house, cona grocery, saloon, and bakery in Hammond, Ind. Their terests in Community E are housed in three brick buildings, $75,000. Their deposits before the depression were $6,000 been paid in full since the panic of last autumn. The remarkto be noted in connection with these establishments is that sion of business has been made through the profits realized. odest beginnings are considered in comparison with their atus, a conception of their profits may be reached. At the e the inference is almost irresistible that such profits could been earned by ordinary business methods and that these must have made exceptional gains from labor agencies or


ception of the business life of the communities would not be however, without citing mercantile concerns which have blished under conditions unlike those mentioned above. ses of such concerns will be sufficient: (1) Those established le capital, and (2) those established by bringing together gs of aliens living in the locality. As an illustration of the , a Macedonian firm in Hungary Hollow may be cited. This e house was started in 1907. The capital, about $25,000, shed by a merchant who has an establishment in Macedonia, managed by a Macedonian who, until coming to Hungary was engaged in the banking business in Constantinople. It e varied interests of the establishments mentioned in detail An example of the second class is furnished by another n house. These men secured from laborers who had conn them $50,000 and built a $30,000 brick building containing aloon, fifty-two living rooms, and a theater. After the ment had been operated for a number of months it failed sed into control of a commissioner in bankruptcy. The ions for its failure are twofold: (1) That it did not have working capital, and (2) that it was improperly promoted aged. The latter reason seems to be correct.

examples are typical of the larger-scale business enterprises. e numerous cases of smaller businesses conducted by aliens, saloons, coffeehouses, smaller general mercantile houses, various kinds, independent bakeries, bottling works, and r lodging houses and restaurants. The larger mercantile



Two newspapers, one issued weekly and the oth published in Hungary Hollow, and both are cont houses. The Bulgarian semiweekly paper has about six months and circulates among Bulgari country. It is printed wholly in the Bulgarian la Bulgarian who has been in this country five yea ting is done by Bulgarian compositors. The p American printing company. The reading matt penings and a digest of the world's news, with Bulgaria and the Balkan peninsula.

The weekly publication is published by a so-calle ciation, which is in reality a business partnership o mercantile house. It has been in existence only its tenure of life seems to be uncertain. It is edi who was a student at the University of Chicago an degree of doctor of philosophy at the University He has also published several small books in the The newspaper is printed partly in Bulgarian and and the composition and press work is done by M publication occupies a small building in Hungary Bulgarian journal has an attractive office in the two newspapers depend largely for their maint advertising, but secure considerable general adv steamship companies, labor agencies, and similar of them has a large circulation, as they have been in a short period of time, and the illiteracy among th Bulgarian peoples is very great. Their combined ably not more than 3,000 copies. They represent and political factions in the life of Hungary Hollow

The motive of the rival mercantile houses in publications is twofold: (1) they desire to control public opinion in the locality, and (2) they can advertising their general business in the localities branch of their establishments among Bulgarian whom they wish to secure deposits.


The immigrant sections lie within the police juris regular towns of the community under the contro constituted police authorities. The immigrants al tomary complaint against the police and the police j of the peace. They claim that they have been ar pretexts, some of which had no foundation, and heavily. They also assert that the fines imposed conformity with the offense charged, but have been to the judge's opinion of the resources of the prisoner

Hungary Hollow, which stands in an isolated po the American section is concerned, and which, leg governed by the authorities of the larger Americ unique system of public control and self-government of questions which particularly interest its pop

largely influenced by the alien press, and the press in turn, pointed out, is controlled by representative mercantile Representative men, however-usually the heads of mercanSare the most potent factors in the control of public Each mercantile house, as already described, has from 50 migrants who room in its buildings or purchase their sup

its stores. The typical mercantile house will have a -ranging in number from four to five hundred persons. ens not only make their purchases from the mercantile t tend, on account of their ignorance of the language and customs, to look to the manager of the mercantile house - in all the affairs of life. He becomes a sort of patron to 1 develops a paternalistic attitude toward his entire cliencommunicates to them the opportunities for work and hem whether they should accept or reject work which is them. In these and other ways he gains and retains a large part of the alien population.

pulation, as a natural result, tends to become divided into etions, the leadership of which centers in the various merouses. The immigrants readily follow the advice of their and the system of control, therefore, narrows down to a between a group of leaders resembling somewhat in their and activities the small American political boss. In Hollow the various factors of influence and control seem to utward from two leading Bulgarian mercantile houses. stensible control in the community is vested in a mass of the alien population, before which various questions are discussed. While these questions are argued pro and con eaders, and the population is theoretically free to act as it est, practically each individual's decision is influenced by ations with certain leaders and the forces which they can bear upon him. By way of illustration, some southern anters recently offered to employ a number of laborers on antations. The communication to the people of the comcame through a Bulgarian labor agent who was affiliated in ests with one of the mercantile houses, which in turn conne of the Bulgarian newspapers as well as various business

A mass meeting was called to consider the proposition uthern planters. The faction represented by the labor agent rongly the acceptance of the offer. On the other hand its nce was vigorously opposed by another Bulgarian mercantile ment, on the ground of peonage in the South. Men were before the meeting who had been in the South, and the evil ns there were described by the editor of the Naroden Glas, spaper owned by the opposing mercantile house, and the made that no Bulgarians accept the work in the South. As lt of this opposition the men decided not to go and the ion was rejected.

illustration serves to show that in a segregated community Hungary Hollow a form of direct democracy is developed to local affairs, or, rather, to consider and decide questions and that affect the community. Apparently these questions

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