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that over time the advantages of Seoul pursued widely. Parallel computing

pursued widely. Parallel computing research funds in the United States, , would swing the pendulum back to SNU. research is highly oriented around trans- any Korean exchange would have to be There is not much interest in either puters. Supercomputing is concentrated supported by Korean money both ways. supercomputing or practical parallel at one laboratory (ETRI) along with A Korean scientist, already paid for, computing at SNU. Perhaps faculty in some industrial applications at Kia would be more likely to get a welcome the engineering departments are able Motors, but the field is not thriving, reception at a U.S. facility. On the other to do all their necessary computations nor did I hear about much research in

nor did I hear about much research in hand, even with good facilities, the on workstations. Interests in electronics- numerical computation. Networking is culture shock may be an inhibiting factor related research are wide and varied, improving, with the soon-to-be-opened in any U.S.-to-Korea exchange. A including research in semiconductors T1 link between Seoul and Taeduk and Korean equivalent to the Humboldt and superconductors. Epitaxial semi- other 54-kbit lines in operation or soon Prize, where the German Government conductor structures are grown by both to be and enhanced Internet access. thanked the United States for the molecular beam and organometallic Facilities at the research laboratories Marshall Plan, might be required to methods under the direction of U.S.- are good to very good and include a attract senior U.S. scientists. From the trained scientists such as Prof. variety of advanced workstations and U.S. side, presently there is little active Jung-Chun Woo. graphics terminals.

research going on of other than regional

Korean work in ocean science and interest to U.S. scientists. The potenKorea Ocean Research and engineering shows great promise after tial is there, and there would be opporDevelopment Institute (KORDI) a period of heavy investment. They have tunities for young researchers struggling

the equipment, buildings, governmen- for funds and space in the United States. The visit to KORDI, located in Ansan tal support, and well-trained staffs. Right Some of their active research programs on the west coast, was very brief. Their now, they are in the pre-active research such as the Ocean Thermal Energy new ship, the ONNURI, was just arriv- phase, advancing on the learning curve Conversion (OTEC) program and ing from its construction in Norway, by doing routine survey work in coastal Ocean Mining are essentially defunct and they will be getting another ship, areas, mainly as service to government in the United States. It may be in the the EARDO, which will be the support agencies and industry. Their fisheries- interest of the United States to maintain ship for their submersible. The capac- marine biology work is close to par some times to these programs as ity of KORDI to participate in interna- with Western nations, but as expected insurance on potential emerging tional programs is growing. Wilde's it's far smaller than the effort in Japan. technologies. impression was of great potential capa- On the international level, Korea is Korean research groups have emphabilities but with facilities just coming actively cooperating in Antarctica with sized electronic materials and semion-line for other than just coastal work. many nations. KORDI is involved in conductor heterostructure studies for

several global oceanographic experi- their obvious commercial potentialiSUMMARY

ments with components in near Korean ties. Korea is determined to earn a

waters. Once they have people familiar share of the HDTV market, which Korean computing research is behind with the equipment, they have the requires development of very sophistithat in the United States in most of the potential of developing active basic cated digital and analog IC production areas Kahaner was told about and this research programs. Right now, much capacity. Both silicon-based and GaAscorresponds to earlier experiences he ofthe research is applied, which may be based ICs are being developed at ETRI, has reported in previous Scientific suitable for a country as small and KIST, RIST, and SNU, especially among Information Bulletin articles (see, for emerging as Korea. Korea might bene- the laboratories visited. In addition, example, “Snapshot of Computing fit from a more active exchange pro- there are strong industrial research Activities in Korea,” 16(2), 7-13 (1991); gram with the United States. They do programs in laboratories of Samsung, and “First Korea Japan Conference on have a relatively small program with Goldstar, and Hyundai Electronics, Computer Vision,” 17(1), 37-49 (1992)). Japan. However, because of historical which Rehn will attempt to assess later. Koreans are aware of all the main thrusts reasons, Korean-Japanese cooperation From this bird's eye view of Korean in computing science and often are may be expected to be limited and less government-sponsored research in working up to their own approaches to valuable to the Koreans than with electronic materials and semiconducfinding solutions to problems being Western nations. Due to the lack of tor heterostructures, we heard about research on quantum heterostructures and superlattices in III-V and in Si-Ge materials. We heard about organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy growth facilities at ETRI, KIST, and SNU. We saw application of Josephson junction technology in standards research at KRISS and femtosecond laser spectroscopy studies at KAIST on optoelectronic devices grown at ETRI. We also saw the beginnings of the Pohang Light Source (PLS), a 2-GeV synchrotron-radiation (SR) facility under construction at POSTECH. Plans for PLS beam lines are not yet available, but a committee has convened in Seoul to study effective application of SR in electronics-oriented research programs.

Korean scientists and research managers are eager for international collaboration. They realize, however, that they do not now have as much to offer as to receive in such exchanges. Hence, they are willing to provide the greater share of the funding and make other contributions. For example, Korean research scientists may be sent, fully paid, to the United States for extended (6-12 months) visits in U.S. laboratories, where they can contribute to U.S. research activities while learning U.S. research techniques. Exchanges the other way are more problematic, however. Although the Korean laboratories are eager to host U.S. scientists for extended visits, and to pay much of the cost, they recognize that the benefits to the U.S. scientists may not be so great.

The depth and breadth of Korean electronics-oriented research was not apparent from this brief overview. In the near future, Rehn will report in greater depth on electronics-oriented research in Korea and on the opportunities for international cooperation.

ERATO AND JAPAN'S DREAMS OF

FUTURE TECHNOLOGY

The 10-year-old ERATO program is one of Japan's most innovative
programs for moving the frontiers of science toward advanced technology.

Covering a broad scope from the biological and life sciences to the
chemical sciences and new areas of nanoscience, ERATO is a highly

visible program of 17 individual projects, currently, involving 576
researchers (24 foreign) in 145 laboratories, with a total funding of about

$51M per year. The impact of these multidisciplinary, time-limited, exploratory research projects is beginning to be felt in several areas of

science and technology, both within and outside Japan.

by Victor Rehn

INTRODUCTION TO ERATO sometimes to be followed by a post- around" with new research ideas, even

project project. Each project is selected lying outside the original scope of the ERATO is a high-visibility, highly by the JRDC with the coordination of project. A wide variety of disciplines political research program spanning a the Research and Development Council. can be included in any project. Younger wide range of research from genetics Projects are organized around a Ph.D. investigators in their early thirties and biological sciences to surface and research theme by a single Project form the majority of researchers, thereby semiconductor physics and chemistry. Director (PD), who may be associated providing a training ground for the Considering the long tenure in office with a university, a national research professional, innovative leadership of of Japan's Liberal Democratic Party, institution, a public research corpora- the next generation. Note that ERATO as well as the Japanese cultural con- tion, or an industrial research labora- (i.e., JRDC) is independent of the cern for continuity and harmony, the tory. Typically, the PD utilizes three Ministry for International Trade and continuity of ERATO in the foresee- research groups comprising researchers

research groups comprising researchers Industry (MITI) and the Ministry of able future seems assured.

from any type of research laboratory, Education, both ministries with extenERATO (Exploratory Research for including overseas laboratories. (There sive research programs of their own. Advanced Technology) is a 10-year- are currently 89 overseas researchers old program of the Research and Devel- from 24 countries in the ERATO pro- ERATO PROJECTS opment Corporation of Japan (JRDC). gram.) Each group is given a specific JRDC, in turn, was founded by the subgoal and coordinates its work with Three or four new ERATO projScience and Technology Agency (STA) the PD via a group leader. PDs are not ects are announced annually. With the in 1961. STA is an element of the Prime encouraged to build permanent labo- 1991 announcement of four new projMinister's office, along with the Coun- ratory facilities but rather to rent tem- ects beginning 1 October 1991, there cil for Science and Technology (see porary facilities as needed. Usually these are currently 17 in all, and 12 others Figure 1).

facilities are separate from the PD's have been completed (see Appendixes A There seems to be no program in organization.

and B). ERATO projects are reviewed the United States similar to ERATO. ERATO research is carried out at publicly annually in the ERATO SymIt differs from National Science Foun- the interface between science and tech- posia given in Tokyo. Although these dation (NSF) programs in the scale, nology. However, project themes are reviews are presented in Japanese, tenure, and organization of the proj. considered starting points only and are English translations are published later. ects: total funding for each project is not restrictive. One ERATO PD told Several English translations of the 1990 typically $15M over a 5-year period, me that they are encouraged to “play ERATO reviews were reproduced in the JPRS Report on Science and Tech- In the next sections brief descrip- The order of projects below correnology, Japan, JPRS-JST-91-022, 12 tions are presented of some of the sponds to that given in Appendixes A August 1991. They can be thought of as projects. Most of this material comes and B. Further information concernprogress reports on the realization of from the English abstracts of the pre- ing any of the ERATO projects may be the dreams of future science and tech- sentations made at the ERATO Sym- obtained from the appropriate project nology dreamt by some Japanese posia '91, Tokyo, November and director, whose mailing address and researchers.

December 1991. Additional material telephone and telefax numbers are given was gathered from JRDC publications. in Appendix B.

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Figure 1. Organization relationship of the JRDC ERATO program within the Science and

Technology Agency under the Prime Minister's Office.

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