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• Development of flatpanel display
• Generation of new antibiotic and
• Development of intelligent 7. Human Factors: Human inter
manufacturing system (IMS) face technology associated with
electronics and robotics --Provide
better human life with more HANP-II: Fundamental Technology pleasure, comfort, and conveDevelopment
nience in highly developed indus
trial society 1. New Materials: Development of
new advanced materials in infor- A set of technology guideposts have mation services, electronic and been established, extracted from the
nergy industry--Critically impor- HANP plans. tant in information and highly developed industrial society 1993:
• Development of intelligent and
• Development of advanced fabrica
4. Environmental Technology:
Technology development in environmental engineering Provision of better human and
• Commercialization of multimedia
• Development of super-precision
• Development of mini-robot for
the largess of the Korean Government
but also to the connections Korean • Construction of new atomic reactor Fifth International Fuzzy Systems Asso- scientists have with the United States, ciation World Congress
which makes them familiar with Westem Remark: Of the HAN projects
software products. Application fields mentioned, the one most directly linked For information:
are represented quite uniformly, with to Kahaner's background is the Intelli
physics, electrical engineering, and gent Computer Project. The project's Prof. Z. Bien
chemistry each covering about 20% of organizers see this as related to many Department of Electrical
the users. During the machine's first other projects, such as CIM, materials, Engineering
year in operation it was free to users. B-ISDN, HDTV, DRAMs, human inter- KAIST
Currently a charging algorithm is in face, multiprocessors, and electric car. 373-1 Kusong-dong
place. The scientists at Seoul National Major technology required will be flat- Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea University are not heavily on this panel display, wireless communication, Tel: +82-42-829-3419
machine because of the high cost and high speed networks, large scale data- Fax: +82-42-829-3410
also because until now a high-speed bases, Korean language processing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org link was not available. object-oriented technology, application
In addition to the supercomputer specific integrated circuits (ASICs), VISITS OF THE ONRASIA- center, SERI also has divisions of Artivirtual reality, etc. The intelligent AROFE TEAM
ficial Intelligence, System and Applicomputer planning team's road map
cation Software, and Software Engifor this project contains the banner Systems Engineering
neering. Very few of the actual research “One Computer Per Person” and divides Research Institute (SERI) activities were shown, although some the major subprojects into three parts,
that looked interesting to Kahaner were associated with neural computer, knowl- Keeping Korean science organiza- automatic license plate recognition, edge processing, and multi media. Other tion names straight is difficult, espe- automatic personal identification via subprojects include a voice typewriter cially so as some of their affiliations image analysis of fingerprints, and and a personal assistant server. As most have changed over time. SERI began as remote sensing/image processing work. aspects of this project are still in the the Computation Research Laboratory The facilities at SERI are among the planning stage, it is too early to make in the Korea Institute of Science and very best in Korea; essentially any kind an assessment; however, it looks like Technology (KIST), then became affil- of advanced workstation-type equipan excellent opportunity for enhanced iated with the Korean Advanced Insti- ment is installed. The Cray is heavily international cooperation.
tute of Science and Technology used but not completely flooded. ParComputer researchers should make (KAIST), and in 1989 moved back
(KAIST), and in 1989 moved back allel computing is centered around a note of the following meetings to be (organizationally) to KIST. It is located transputer-based system. To the best held in Korea.
in the Taeduk Science Town, about of Kahaner's knowledge there is no
90 minutes by train from Seoul. Taeduk commercial parallel system available, 15-18 September 1992, Seoul, Korea is the sight of several Korean science and this could be a serious weakness
agencies as well as industrial labora- for anyone wanting to do work on Second Pacific Rim International Con- torics. It differs from Japan's Tsukuba applications, but might be a challenge ference on Artificial Intelligence in that it was already a “real” small city for systems researchers.
when the scientists began moving in. SERI is the central information For information:
At the moment a large EXPO is being center for a collection of databases and
constructed that will focus attention on-line services jointly called KRISTAL PRICAI Conference Secretariat on Korean science and Taeduk in par- (Korea Research Information on SciCenter for Al Research
ticular. SERI has 472 staff, 22 with ence and Technology Access Line). KAIST Ph.D. degrees.
Databases include the Union catalog 373-1 Kusong-dong
The main interest here is the Cray-2, for monographs, bibliographic inforYusung-gu, Taejon 305-701, Korea which was discussed in an earlier report. mation compiled by specialized inforTel: +82-42-829-2711, -2712 Its Cray-2 was installed almost 4 years mation centers, scientific equipment, Fax: +82-42-829-8700
ago and was the first supercomputer in software registration, scientific specialE-mail: email@example.com Korea. It has a very rich application ists, as well as other specialized dataInformation moves to/from industry, Knowledge Engineering, Language The staff of almost 500 (about 100 government agencies, libraries, etc. and Engineering, Visual Information Pro- with Ph.D. degrees) is located on a is available via public networks and a cessing, Speech Information Process- campus setting in the Taeduk Science new backbone network, KREONET ing, Computer Systems, and Human Town. Most of KRISS' scientists have (Korea Research Environment Open Computer Interaction). There are plans degrees in physics or engineering and Network). KREONET includes a to install a 64-transputer parallel sys- there are no Ph.D. holders in computer 56-kbps line to the United States through tem, but the research projects Kahaner
software base; this is due not only to bases for specific scientific disciplines.
tem, but the research projects Kahaner science among the staff. KRISS' 1992 the San Diego Supercomputer Center, read about are all nonnumerical. The budget is about $30M. As with other a T1 line to SERI's Seoul facility, and a facilities appeared to be excellent. international standards organizations, number of 56-kbps lines from SERI in In the physics area, one laboratory KRISS has a large number of internaTaeduk to other Korean cities includ. is conducting research in subpicosec- tional cooperative agreements and joint ing Pohang, Kwangju, Pusan, Chanwon, ond transient behavior of semiconduc- research projects with similar organietc. KREONET provides the usual tor optical devices. Samples are pre- zations in the United States, Japan, the network services such as file transfer pared by the Electronics and Telecom- United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, protocol (FTP), mail, rlogin, etc. munications Research Institute and
Germany, the Commonwealth of Indemeasurements are made at KAIST, using pendent States, and Australia. Korea Advanced Institute of lasers with pulse widths as short as Science and Technology 60 fs.
Electronics and (KAIS)
Telecommunications Korea Research Institute of Research Institute (ETRI) KAIST is a research oriented grad- Standards and Science uate school with 1,000 Ph.D. students (KRISS)
Also located in Taeduk Science (70% full time) administratively sup
Town, ETRI is the R&D arm of the ported under MOST (all other federal This was recently renamed from the Ministry of Science and Technology universities are administered by the Korea Standards Research Institute (MST), focusing on information techMinistry of Education). Associated with (KSRI) by incorporating the Korea Basic
(KSRI) by incorporating the Korea Basic nology, telecommunications, computKAIST is the Korea Institute of Tech- Science Center (KBSC) and the Insti- ers, automation, and semiconductors. nology (KIT), which is an undergrad- tute of Space Science and Astronomy It has a staff of about 1,700 of which uate school with 3,000 students. Since (ISSA). KBSC's main function was to about 1,400 are technical and/or proKAIST's inception in 1971 it has awarded provide research facilities and infor- fessional. Only about 5% of ETRI's over 1,000 Ph.D. and 6,000 M.S. degrees. mation on basic sciences to universi- work is viewed as basic science (60A new KAIST campus is mostly com- ties in Korea. ISSA was responsible for 70 man-years per year), although the plete in Taeduk (the analogy with optical and radio observation and plan is to grow this to about 15% during Tsukuba University is very strong). research in positional astronomy, astro- the next decade. The current budget is KAIST has departments in virtually all physics, and space science.
about $130M, which is planned to grow standard fields of science and engineer- KRISS is essentially a standards to $175M by 2001. By that time ETRI ing as well as in management science, organization that also conducts some hopes to have a total staff of about humanities, and social sciences. As a R&D in precision measurement tech- 2,350, of which 30% will be Ph.D. federal university, KAIST and KIT nology and supports industry with train- holders. provide various kinds of financial sup- ing in measurement technologies as Most of the R&D work is clearly port; in practice it seems that most full well as development and repair of high- oriented toward telecommunications time students are fully supported. In precision instruments. It has divisions such as digital switches, ISDN, transthe area of computing, there is a large of Mechanical Metrology, Electromag- mission technology, and networks. Computer Science Department with netic Metrology, Quantum Metrology, Semiconductor design and development more than 100 Ph.D. and 100 master's Analytical Chemistry, Precision Instru- such as ultra large scale integration students that has already conferred more mentation, and a Materials Evaluation (ULSI), HDTV, etc. is next. Other than 40 Ph.D. degrees.
Center. In the physics area, research is computer work is much more narrowly The mainstay of the research activ- carried out on the quantum Halleffect, based and supports the HANP Intelliities in computing appears to be in the direct current superconducting quan- gent Computer Project mentioned Center for Artificial Intelligence tum interference devices (DC SQUIDs),
)above. Research (CAIR), which is subdivided laser spectroscopy, and other solid-state into six laboratories (Database and phenomena of interest for standards.
ETRI has a small office in San Jose Korea Science and
that more than a dozen Nobel Prize to support the dozen or more staff that Engineering Foundation winners have already lectured at are in the United States at any given (KOSEF)
POSTECH. There are a few Western time and also to act as a base for obtain
visiting professors who are able to work ing information about advanced tech- KOSEF is essentially equivalent to in English, but lecturing in Korean is nology. This year they will open a liai. the U.S. National Science Foundation. an unofficial requirement for any person office in Europe to support infor- A brief conversation with KOSEF's manent position. POSTECH provides mation exchange, joint research, etc. Director, Dr. Kang, revealed that, unfor- an attractive research situation for
In electronics research, ETRI has tunately, there are very few programs visitors, but there might be some lifedeveloped a 4-Mbit DRAM memory to support visiting Western researchers style difficulties. Pohang is definitely using 0.8-micron technology. Work is to Korea.
not Seoul and access to Seoul is only underway currently to develop 16-and
fair. While English is widely spoken at 64-Mbit DRAMs using 0.5-micron tech- Pohang Institute of Science POSTECH, it is unlikely to be undernology. In applied optoelectronics and Technology (POSTECH) stood outside in the city of Pohang. research, ETRI has developed a proto
Further, there are no schooling facilitype 155-Mbps optical transmitter and POSTECH is Korea's newest pri- ties in the area for non-Korean speakreceiver using InGaAs/InP materials vate university, established by the ing children. at a 1.3-micron wavelength. Current Pohang Iron and Steel Company One of the most important projects work is directed toward 565-Mbps (POSCO) in the city of the same name, at POSTECH is the construction of a optical transmission for use in cable slightly more than 200 miles southeast 2-GeV synchrotron-radiation source, television networks. More advanced of Seoul. Its first entering class was the first in Korea. POSTECH serves as systems envisioned will use InGaAs/ 1987. POSTECH was discussed at length
1987. POSTECH was discussed at length the host organization for the Pohang InP positive-intrinsic-negative field in an earlier report, so that informa- Light Source (PLS), Korea's entry into effect transistor (PIN-FET) optoelec- tion will not be repeated here except to the synchrotron-radiation research tronic integrated circuits, fiber ampli- say that the goal is to make POSTECH arena. Starting from a planning task fiers, and distributed feedback lasers Korea's equivalent of Cal Tech. Even force in 1988, PLS will be a 2-GeV for coherent transmission at 2 or after just a fewyears there is now agree- electron storage ring, similar in design 10 Gbps. Other notable research ment that it is one of three most impor- to the Advanced Light Source currently includes the development of quantum tant science universities in Korea under construction at Berkeley, CA. devices, based on heterostructure (KAIST and Seoul National Univer- The injection system is very different, materials grown by organometallic sity being the other two), although there however. The PLS injector will be a chemical vapor epitaxy and liquid phase is friendly disagreement about its rank- full-energy linear accelerator (linac) epitaxy. These heterostructural mate- ing between the three.
designed by the High Energy Laborarials and devices are the subject of the Dr. Kim, the President of POSTECH, tory of Beijing, China. The initial secsubpicosecond optical response research explained that they are very satisfied tion of the linacwas built in Beijingand conducted jointly with KAIST (see with the level of students they have installed at Pohang by the Chinese. above). Semiconductor device research enrolled. By 1995, when the university Subsequent sections are being built in is directed toward emitter-controlled will be operating at its full capacity, Korea to the Chinese design, which is logic (ECL) and complementary metal there will be about 1,200 undergrad- closely related to the design of the 2-mileoxide semiconductor (CMOS) arrays. uates, 1,000 graduate students, and 300 long Stanford Linear Accelerator but Device delay times in ECL devices as faculty. Support from POSCO is gen- reduced to 2 GeV instead of 50 GeV. low as 51 ps have been achieved using erous, but Kim is hoping to reduce the When finished, PLS will serve as a "user 1.0-micron bipolar process technology. university's dependence on the com- facility” for all qualified Korean scien
The President of ETRI, Dr. Kyong, pany as their endowment builds up. He tists. Of the capability for 12 beam emphasized his interest in international would also like to get additional gov- lines, only two are currently funded, collaboration (see Summary).
ernment support that is now going to and one of those will be for machine other national (nonprivate) universities. monitoring. Hence, the ambitious plans
On the topic of visitors, Kim for research in materials science, surexplained that international collabora- face science, molecular biology, chemtion is considered very important and ical engineering, atomicand molecular physics, x-ray lithography, etc. will it will have to establish its own identity, Rehn observed that KIST's Semidevelop later as additional beam lines independent of faculty advisors from conductor Materials Laboratory is one are added. POSTECH.
of the most advanced electronic mate
rials research groups in Korea. Among Research Institute of Indus- Korea Institute of Science and the key research activities are: trial Science and Technology Technology (KIST) (RIST)
• Growth of high quality bulk GaAs
KIST is Korea's first science research crystals by the vertical-gradient freeze RIST is the research arm of Pohang institute, formed in 1966. It was merged method, as well as other, more stanIron and Steel Company. It is located with KAIST (essentially a science and dard methods. in Pohang within the complex of the technology university) during the 1980s POSTECH campus. Nearly 900 staff but was separated again in 1989. Its • Heteroepitaxial growth of III-V are supported by a budget of about main facility is in Seoul, although there compounds by molecular beam $80M; there are also about 100 are two affiliated institutes, SERI (see epitaxy, organometallic chemical POSTECH faculty that have a research above) and the Genetic Engineering vapor epitaxy, and hydride vapor appointment at RIST, and many of their Research Institute (GERI), both located phase epitaxy. students are working on research proj- in Taeduk Science Town. Total Seoul ects there. Approximately half of RIST's staff is almost 900, with more than 500 work is concerned with steelmaking, researchers. KIST's total budget last • Deposition of low resistivity Wand although Kahaner did meet two stu- year was about $260M, of which almost W N layers by plasma-enhanced dents working on Bezier curve and 80% is from the Korean Government. chemical vapor deposition. related computer graphics applications. In Seoul there are divisions of Fine In the materials area, large programs Chemicals, Process Technology, • Recrystallization of Si-on-insulator are in progress in the area of advanced Mechano-Electronics, Metals, Ceram- structures with application to threematerials including metal matrix com- ics, Polymers, and Semiconductors. The dimensional semiconductor devices. posites, polymers, and semiconducting ceramics laboratories were well materials and devices.
equipped and were engaged in research • Electrical and optical characterizaFacilities look very good, and the on ceramics for turbine engines, com- tion: Hall effect, X-ray analysis, C-V, team was told that RIST is very inter- posites, sol gel processes for ceramics, deep level transient spectroscopy ested in international cooperation, etc. There is a doping control center (DLTS), PICTS, photoluminescence especially in the areas of optical fibers (used to test athletes during the 1987 (PL), photoluminescence excitation and infrared (IR) sensors. However, Seoul Olympic Games), an optics and (PLE), and other techniques. potential visitors will want to clarify to electronics technology center, an enviwhat extent they will have access to ronment research center (focused on • Device fabrication and characterpotentially proprietary information and pollution and waste control), and a ization: double heterostructure laser technology.
fluorocarbons alternatives center. diode, two-dimensional electron gas According to Kahaner, the visit to Kahaner saw no significant work relat- devices, resonant tunneling diode, RIST was too brief to get an accurate ing to computing except to assist in and multiple quantum well devices. reading about the place. However, he physical laboratory experiments. The came away feeling that the organiza- link to the SERI's Cray is new and is
link to the SERI's Cray is new and is Seoul National University tion did not have its own clear vision of not used much. Kahaner didn't get a (SNU) where it wanted to go and depended on sense that much modeling was going POSCO for spirit and direction as well on, but admittedly the visit was very SNU is the largest, oldest, and one as for funding. By other names, POSCO brief. There is a remote sensing and of the most prestigious institutions in has had an affiliated laboratory since image processing group, but he did not Korea. The team's visit to SNU was 1977; it is only very recently that the get to see any of their work.
only at night, to have dinner with their organization has moved close to a uni- International cooperation is an host, Dr. Sang Joo Kim, Vice President. versity, so it is probably natural that it important ingredient of KIST's pro- Kim commented that there is competiwill take time for it to evolve into a real grams and, in fact, there is a Korea- tion between SNU, KAIST, and research institution. RIST's goal to Soviet Scientific and Technical Coop- POSTECH for government support. become a world-class hi-tech research eration Center (KSSTCC), established He admitted that recently POSTECH center by the year 2000 will mean that in 1991.
had been very successful, but he felt