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per diem, housing and family assistance, organizations of scientific and indus- various scientific and academic proand other contingencies including travel trial research abroad. In 1991 there grams of Monbusho. It was established within the country. In the category of were five such projects, of which one is in 1932 as a nonprofit foundation exchange with a duration of stay of a ¥90M program with the U.S. Envi- through an endowment granted by more than 6 months, according to the ronmental Protection Agency. Emperor Showa. In recognition of the director of the program, in 1990 27

importance of international cooperation Japanese went to the United States Science and Technology in promoting scientific research, JSPS and 13 U.S. scientists came to Japan. Agency

administers the following programs.

International Joint Research Grant The STA Fellowships Program was (1) Inviting foreign scientists to Japan, Program. This was established in 1988 established in 1988 to offer opportuni- including foreign scientists in gento promote creative research and to

ties to young foreign researchers to eral and postdoctoral fellowships contribute to the advancement of inter- conduct research at Japan's national for foreign researchers. national exchange in the field of indus- laboratories and public research cortrial technology. Under this program porations (excluding universities and (2) International joint research progrants up to Y30M per year are awarded university-affiliated institutes). The host grams and scientific meetings. to international joint research teams institutes include 84 government labothat fulfill the following conditions: ratories, 10 private corporations, and (3) Bilateral programs with foreign

17 nonprofit institutes. The program is academic institutions (currently (1) Each team must consist of four or managed by JRDCin cooperation with with 42 institutions in 30 counmore researchers.

the Japan International Science and tries). It includes scientist exchange

Technology Exchange Center. This and joint research and seminars. (2) Each team must consist of program is for researchers who are

researchers of two or more nation- 35 years old or younger and have a (4) Cooperative programs with Southalities.

Ph.D. degree or equivalent qualifica- east Asia and other countries. In

tions. The tenure of the fellowship is fiscal year 1990 over 1,500 foreign (3) The research organizations where from 6 months to 2 years. The field of scientists were invited and at the

the researchers' major activities take research is decided through negotia- same time 1,700 Japanese scientists place must be located in two or tion between the candidate and the were sent to foreign countries. more countries.

host institution. The fellowship pro

vides a round-trip airline ticket; monthly The program for the foreign scienThe grant duration is for 3 years. The living, family, and settling allowances; tists in general is designed to enable fields of research suggested are: inves- local travel expenses; etc. Also, STA Japanese scientists to invite foreign tigation and elucidation of material pays ¥149,000 per year to the host insti- colleagues to Japan to participate in functions and practical use of material tution to cover research expenses. In cooperative research and other acafunctions. In 1991, 59 teams consisting 1991, 180 fellowships were granted. The demic activities. There are 240 short of 299 participants of various nation- number may increase in 1992. The (14-90 days) and 40 long term alities, which included 78 from the National Science Foundation in Tokyo (6-10 months) programs. United States, applied. Six teams were (Dr. L. Weber) is the coordinating agency Postdoctoral fellowships for foreign selected. for applicants from the United States. scientists are awarded to promising,

highly qualified foreign researchers who Research Training Program. This Monbusho

have obtained a doctoral degree. It is program is only for young Japanese

designed to provide opportunities to researchers.

The Japan Society for the Promo- conduct cooperative research with

tion of Sciences (JSPS) or Gakushin is leading research groups in Japanese International Research Cooperation a quasi-governmental organization universities and research institutions. Program. NEDO also promotes R&D under the auspices of the Ministry of In 1990 405 fellowships were awarded projects supported jointly by Japanese Education, Science, and Culture.JSPS to postdoctoral researchers from 30 domestic industries in cooperation with plays a key role in the administration of countries; 115 came from the United

States.

JSPS provides 143 fellowships to National Science Foundation the nominating agent for young scienJapanese scientists to conduct joint (NSF)

tists from the United States to award research with their counterparts in other

12-month fellowships to carry out countries. JSPS also has a number of Like JSPS, NSF also has long term research in Japanese university laborabilateral programs for scientific coop- and short term fellowships for U.S. tories. Under a similar program NSF eration and exchange, under MOUS researchers in Japan. NSF is also nominates researchers to the Science between itself and various foreign aca- involved in the bilateral U.S.-Japan and Technology Agency to stay in Japan demic institutions. Under this program seminars, state-of-the art reviews, for 6-24 months at government laboramore than 350 foreign scientists were Japanese language study, and summer tories. According to Dr. Weber, the invited to Japan, and 540 Japanese institute for graduate students in sci- NSF chief at the Tokyo Office, since scientists were sent to various foreign ence and engineering. Four arrange- the inception of the JSPS Fellowship institutions during fiscal year 1990. ments were initiated in 1988 to increase Program and the Japan-U.S. Science

Fellowships are available for the number of U.S. researchers who go Fellowship Fund in 1988, the number Japanese postdoctoral researchers for to Japanese laboratories for of Americans sent or selected to go to conducting research at foreign institu- 6-24 months. With money from the Japan for 6 to 24 months has reached tions for a period of 2 years. In 1990, Government of Japan, NSF formed the over 200. There are presently 75-80 118 such fellowships were awarded. U.S.-Japan Fellowship Fund to sup- Americans conducting research in Japan Of these 61% went to the United States. port U.S. researchers at Japanese uni- under the NSF programs. Also, the

Fellowships involving U.S. versity, government, and corporate summer institute brought 25 and 49 researchers are coordinated through laboratories. An MOU between NSF American graduate students to Japan the National Science Foundation in and AIST established terms under which for 2 months in 1990 and 1991, respecTokyo. Table 1 shows the number of AIST provides access to its research tively. These NSF fellowships for JSPS scientists participating in exchange institutes to 30 U.S. scientists and research in Japan are open to all qualified program from 1988-1990. engineers each year. NSF also serves as researchers from the United States,

including scientists from DOD organizations.

Industry and Technology
Management Program

Table 1.

Number of JSPS Scientists Exchanged with the U.S.

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Under a Congressional act, the Industry and Technology Management Program was initiated in 1991 to provide U.S. scientists and engineers with an increased understanding of Japanese technology management methods, training in the Japanese language, and understanding of Japanese business and culture. The program is also expected to promote the participation of DOD scientists in R&D projects at Japanese government and industrial laboratories. Included in the scope of activities is extending fellowships and travel grants to Japanese scientists to visit the United States. The management of this program is assigned to the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

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Iqbal Ahmad is the director of the Army Research Office (ARO) Far East. He has a Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from Imperial College, London, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, London Prior to his present position, Dr. Ahmad was a program manager in the area of materials science at ARO, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

David K. Kahaner is a senior scientist at the Office of Naval Research Asian Office. He obtained his Ph.D. in applicd mathematics from Stevens Institute of Technology in 1968 From 1978 until 1989 Dr. Kahancr was a group leader in the Center for Computing and Applied Mathematics at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, formerly the National Bureau of Standards, responsible for scientific software development on both large and small computers. From 1968 until 1979 he was in the Computing Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Dr. Kahaner is the author of two books and more than 50 research papers. He also edits a column on scicntific applications of computers for the Society of Industrial and Applied Mathematics. His major research interests are in the development of algorithms and associated software. His programs for solution of disserential equations, evaluation of integrals, random numbers, and others are used worldwide in many scientific computing laboratorics. Dr. Kahaner's electronic mail address is: kahaner@xroads.cc.u-tokyo.ac.jp.

KOREAN SCIENCE INSTITUTIONS

A high level description of a half dozen Korean science institutions is given.

by David K. Kahaner, Victor Rehn, Iqbal Ahmad, and Pat Wilde

INTRODUCTION

and Wilde (marine geology). At each Korean scientists are exceptionally

stop they gave a short overview of well linked to colleagues in the West, From 4-6 March 1992, three mem- ONRASIA's or AROFE's role (assess- especially the United States, where many, bers of the Office of Naval Research ment, fostering contacts and collabo- perhaps as many as 90%, have had Asian Office (ONRASIA) and the rations, etc.). But most of the time was advanced education. For this reason director of the Army Research Office spent listening to descriptions of cur- language is not a serious problem, much Far East (AROFE) visited Korea at rent and future programs at the sites less so than in Japan. There is a very the invitation of visited.

large reservoir of good will between

Below is a brief sense of what the Korea and the United States, and the Mr. Kenneth D. Cohen

scientists learned in their areas and a Korean scientists were exceptionally Counselor for Scientific and description of the programs at each open and frank about their work, probTechnological Affairs

institute visited. The Appendix con- lems, needs, etc. They are very willing U.S. Embassy

tains a list of the hosts and a few key to collaborate. Kahaner feels that what 82 Sejong-ro, Jongro-gu

contacts. The sites included public and they mostly need are collaborations Seoul, Korea

private universities, government labo- with senior scientists who can help shape Tel: +82-2-732-2601 X4159

ratories, and “not for profit” labora- directions. They seem to have ample Fax: +82-2-738-8845

tories. Korean industrial laboratories numbers of young researchers, and as

were not included because of lack of mentioned already, good facilities. Participants were time.

However, at this point he does not see

very strong technical reasons for senior Dr. David K. Kahaner (ONRASIA) BACKGROUND

Western scientists to consider spendDr. Victor Rehn (ONRASIA)

ing substantial time at Korean laboraDr. Pat Wilde (ONRASIA)

Korea's business environment has tories, in as much as they have little to Dr. Iqbal Ahmad (AROFE) deteriorated recently; wage rates and offer that is not already available in the

per capita gross national product (GNP) West; younger researchers might feel Cohen's motivation for the invita- growth are worse than in other coun- differently. Kahaner's assessment of the tion was to introduce the scientists to tries in the region; trade deficits, espe- best form of collaboration is for Western Korean science. He hoped that this cially with China, are growing, and there laboratories to offer research opportuwould generate further contacts and is labor unrest. A bright spot might be nities to Koreans. Younger Korean perhaps collaborative activities. Con- improved relations with North Korea; scientists are well trained and have good sequently, the visit was almost entirely there are hopes that it will be possible communication skills in English. These limited to meetings with heads of orga- to harness the low cost labor available people could be important research nizations or their delegates and there there, and overtures are already being associates and postdoctoral candidates was very little time to make detailed made. For example, the Chairman of for ongoing or new research projects. examinations of laboratories or have Daewoo has just reported plans to build Further, their experiences will be substantial discussions with working several light industrial plants in the brought back to Korea where further scientists. This made sense also in that North. But at the moment, research collaboration might ensue. Thus a short the four scientists are interested in quite money is getting tighter than in the term benefit to laboratories in the West different activities: Ahmad (materials), recent past because of Korea's worsen- may result in long term benefits later Kahaner (computing), Rehn (physics), ing economicsituation, although fund- on.

ing is still attractive.

1. Semiconductor Industry: Devel

opment of highly integrated semiconductor

• Development and production

of 256M dynamic random access memory (DRAM) by 1996

• Development of 16 DRAM

by 2000

2. Communication Industry: Devel

opment of integrated services and data network (ISDN)

• Development of ATM(asyn

chronous transfer mode) by 1996

• Development of ISDN by 2000

3. Home Appliance Industry: Devel

opment of high definition TV (HDTV)

THE HIGHLY ADVANCED HANP budgets for international R&D
NATIONAL PROJECT (HANP) activities. Active international exchange

programs for researchers will be actively
The most interesting new project is promoted. The Korean Government is
the Highly Advanced National Project going to amend certain laws to better
(HANP), for the period 1993-2006. The permit participation of foreign
premise is that Korea is still a third- researchers and experts in the country's
world country with recent problems of R&D projects, supported at
stagnating economy, high inflation, and government-supported research insti-
distorted national income distribution. tutes. HANP is scaled at about 200-
Combined with rising labor costs and 300 man-years per year. During the
international competition, the economic research stages funding will be close to
environment is seen as being very unfa- 2:1 government-to-industry funding;
vorable unless steps are taken to advance funding during the development stage
the state of the country's high technol- will be in the reverse ratio. Major Korean
ogy research and development (R&D) industries are participating (at least in
capability. The Government realizes the planning phase) and include
that it will be nearly impossible for Samsung, Goldstar, Hyundai, Daewoo,
Korea to catch up with advanced coun- Pos Data, San Yong, Hyosung, Korea
tries in all technological fields. Thus Telecom, TriGem, Korea Computer,
the strategy is to emphasize “technol- Qnix, and Dacom. There is also partic-
ogy” rather than “science" and to con- ipation from the leading universities
centrate limited national resources in and national laboratories.
some critical technologies.

Two distinct categories of projects In Korea, national R&D programs have been selected. One group, Prodare basically controlled by the Ministry ucts Technology Development Project of Science and Technology (MOST) (HANP-I), focuses on technologies for and the Ministry of Trade and Industry very specific products that may have (MTI). MOST is mainly responsible large industrial world market share and for basic and fundamental technology which Korea has the capability to developments, while MTI is in charge compete in the 21st century. The second of industrial technology development. category, Fundamental Technology Other related ministries such as the Development Project (HANP-II), Ministry of Energy and Resources and concerns more core technologies that the Ministry of Communications (MOC) are seen as essential to society but for also participate in R&D programs. But which it may be impossible to manufacthe Korean Government recognizes that ture products by 2001. Within each of there has been some unnecessary over- these two categories seven projects have lap and that better coordination is been selected. There is still some internecessary in order to leverage modest nal discussion about the projects and a investments.

certain amount of modifications are HANP is planned to be interminis- likely, but the general framework is terial and is to include universities, now in place. These projects are listed industry, and government-supported below. institutes. Naturally funding for HANP will be lower than desired, but the other HANP-I: Products Technology Develobstacle is seen to be manpower. To opment aid this, involvement of foreign experts is strongly recommended by the A. Industrial fields which will be supGovernment, even in the planning stages ported to keep and advance Korea's and for evaluating plans. Specifically, present technological level and MOST is going to invest 5% to 20% of competitive advantages.

• Establishment of HDTV

monitor technology by 1993

• Development of transmission

and broadcasting technology by 1994

• Development of flatpanel

display by 1997

4. Automobile Industry: Develop

ment of electric vehicle-Commercialized by 1996

B. Industrial fields in which Korea will

be able to compete with advanced countries or will be forced to challenge to acquire competitive capability in 21st century.

5. Computer Industry: Develop

ment of intelligent computer

• Development of multimedia

computer by 1994

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